Chemical Exposure: Toxicology, Safety, and Risk Assessment

LC Science Tracer Bullet Series

Compiled by Teresa Meikle

Science Reference Section
Science and Technology Division
Library of Congress
10 First Street, S.E.
Washington, D.C. 20540-5581

TB 91-11
December 1991


This Tracer Bullet focuses on health and safety aspects of human exposure to chemicals known or suspected to be hazardous. Areas covered include toxic risk assessment, standards for permissible exposure levels, and safety precautions. References to older materials that document early scientific knowledge of the hazardous effects of chemical substances are included because of frequent requests in connection with litigation. Although this guide is not directed at health hazards deriving from pharmaceuticals, biologicals, or the physical environment (e.g., radiation), some of the cited works deal with these topics. Other guides in the Tracer Bullet series that relate to environmental hazards to health are "Allergy and Asthma" (TB 89-7), "Asbestos" (TB 87-1), "Electromagnetic Fields—Physiological and Health Effects" (TB 86-5), "Indoor Air Pollution" (TB 86-8), and Noise Pollution (TB 88-6). Not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography, the present guide is designed—as the name of the series implies—to put the reader "on target."


     Ballantyne, Bryan.  Toxicology.  In Encyclopedia of chemical
        technology.  3rd ed. Supplement volume.  New York, Wiley,
        1984.  p. 894-924.           TP9.E685 1978 Suppl. <SciRR>
           Bibliography: p. 920-924.

     Russell, Cristine.  What, me worry? Hazards are everywhere,
        but you're probably nervous about the wrong ones.
        American health, v. 9, June 1990: 44-51.
                               RA773.A55 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>
           Includes notes by Royce Flippin and Erica Franklin.

     Segal, Marian.  Is it worth the worry? Determining risk.
        FDA consumer, v. 24, June 1990: 7-11.
                        HD9000.9.U5A1735 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>
           Includes note by Peter Sandman.

     Stranahan, Susan Q.  It's enough to make you sick.  National
        wildlife, v. 28, Feb./Mar. 1990: 8-15.
                              S964.U6N35 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>

SUBJECT HEADINGS used by the Library of Congress, under which
books on chemical exposure can be located in most card, book, and
online catalogs, include the following:

Highly relevant terms:
     See also subdivision TOXICOLOGY under names of substances,
     See also subdivision EFFECT OF CHEMICALS ON under names of
        organs or systems of the body, e.g., FETUS—EFFECT OF
     See also subdivision PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT under names of
        substances, e.g., LEAD—PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT; OZONE—

Narrower terms:
     See also subdivision CARCINOGENICITY under names of
     See also subdivision DISEASES under names of occupational
     See also subdivision HEALTH ASPECTS under names of
        industries, processes, or substances, e.g., AIR—

Related terms:


     Casarett, Louis J.  Casarett and Doull's toxicology: the
        basic science of poisons.  Editors, Mary O. Amdur, John
        Doull, Curtis D. Klaassen.  4th ed.  New York, Pergamon
        Press, c1991.  1033 p.           RA1211.C296 1991 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographical references.

     Kamrin, Michael A.  Toxicology: a primer on toxicology
        principles and applications.  Chelsea, Mich., Lewis
        Publishers, c1988.  145 p.        RA1211.K26 1988 <SciRR>
           Bibliography: p. 139-141.

     Koren, Herman.  Handbook of environmental health and safety:
        principles and practices.  2nd ed.  Chelsea, Mich., Lewis
        Publishers; Denver, Colo., National Environmental Health
        Association, c1991.  2 v.          RA565.K67 1991 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographical references.

     Ottoboni, M. Alice.  The dose makes the poison: a plain-
        language guide to toxicology.  2nd ed.  New York, Van
        Nostrand Reinhold, c1991.  244 p.
                                          RA1213.O88 1991 <SciRR>
           Bibliography:  p. 225-226.

     Toxics A to Z: a guide to everyday pollution hazards.  John
        Harte and others.  Berkeley, University of California
        Press, c1991.  479 p.                     RA1213.T76 1991
           Includes bibliographical references.



     Fighting toxics: a manual for protecting your family,
        community, and workplace.  Edited by Gary Cohen and John
        O'Connor; foreword by Barry Commoner.  Washington, Island
        Press, c1990.  346 p.              RA566.F54 1990 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographical references.

     Gabler, Raymond.  Is your water safe to drink?  Raymond
        Gabler and the editors of Consumer Reports Books.
        Mount  Vernon,  N. Y.,  Consumers  Union,  c1988.  390
        p.                               RA592.A1G33 1988 <SciRR>
           Bibliography: p. 335-368.

     The Health detective's handbook: a guide to the
        investigation of environmental health hazards by
        nonprofessionals.  Edited by Marvin S. Legator, Barbara
        L. Harper, and Michael J. Scott.  Baltimore,  Johns
        Hopkins  University  Press,  c1985.  256 p.
                                                   RA653.H43 1985
           Bibliography: p. 241-247.

     The Poisoned well:   new strategies for groundwater
        protection.    Sierra  Club  Defense  Fund.  Eric P.
        Jorgensen, editor.  Washington, Island Press, c1989.  415
                                           TD426.P64 1989 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographical references.


     Cohrssen, John J., and Vincent T. Covello.  Risk analysis: a
        guide to principles and methods for analyzing health and
        environmental risks.  Washington, Executive Office of the
        President of the U.S., Council on Environmental Quality;
        Springfield, Va., For sale by the National Technical
        Information Service, c1989.  407 p.
                                         RA566.3.C64 1989 <SciRR>
           NTIS order no. PB89-137772.
           Includes bibliographical references (p. 377-395).

     Methods for biological monitoring: a manual for assessing
        human exposure to hazardous substances.  Edited by
        Theodore J. Kneip and John V. Crable.  Washington,
        American Public Health Association, c1988.  496 p.
                                       RA1223.B54M48 1988 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographies.

     Setting environmental standards: guidelines for
        decision-making.  Edited by H. W. de Koning.  Geneva,
        World Health Organization; Albany, N.Y., WHO Publications
        Center, USA distributor, 1987.  98 p.      RA565.S48 1987
           Bibliography: p. 71-76.

     Zimmerman, Rae.  Governmental management of chemical risk:
        regulatory processes for environmental health.  Chelsea,
        Mich., Lewis Publishers, c1990.  345 p.
                                         T55.3.H3Z56 1990 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographical references (p. 309-331).

   SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTS (occupations, hobbies, food, etc.)

     Food contamination from environmental sources.  Edited by
        Jerome O. Nriagu and Milagros S. Simmons.  New York,
        Wiley, c1990.  785 p.  (Advances in environmental science
        and technology, v. 23)          TD180.A38 vol. 23 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographical references.

     Fundamentals of industrial hygiene.  Barbara A. Plog,
        editor.  3rd ed.  Chicago, National Safety Council,
        c1988.  915 p.                     RC967.F85 1988 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographies.

     Hamilton, Alice, Harriet L. Hardy, and Asher J. Finkel.
        Hamilton and Hardy's industrial toxicology.  4th ed.
        Boston, J. Wright, 1983.  428 p.
                                          RA1229.H35 1983 <SciRR>
           Previous editions published under title Industrial
           Includes bibliographies.

     Handbook of chemical and environmental safety in schools and
        colleges.  The Forum for Scientific Excellence, Inc.
        Philadelphia, Lippincott, c1990.  654 p.
                                         T55.3.H3H34 1990 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographical references (p. 633-636).

     Health and safety beyond the workplace.  Lester V. Cralley,
        Lewis J. Cralley, W. Clark Cooper, editors.  New York,
        Wiley, c1990.  323 p.                     RA565.H375 1990
           Includes bibliographical references.

     Health risks to female workers in occupational exposure to
        chemical agents.  R. L. Zielhuis and others.  Berlin, New
        York, Springer-Verlag, 1984.  120 p.   RC963.6.W65H4 1984
           "International archives of occupational and
        environmental health supplement"—p. ii.
           Includes bibliographies.

     Monitoring the worker for exposure and disease: scientific,
        legal, and ethical considerations in the use of
        biomarkers.  Nicholas A. Ashford and others.  Baltimore,
        Johns Hopkins University Press, c1990.  224 p.
                                        RA1229.4.M67 1990 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographical references (p. 165-213).

     Occupational medicine: principles and practical
        applications.  Edited by Carl Zenz.  2nd ed.  Chicago,
        Year Book Medical Publishers, c1988.  1273 p.
                                           RC963.O23 1988 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographies.

     Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology.
        First published in 1948 (HD7263.P3), a 2nd ed. appeared
     in 1958 (RC967.P37) and a 3rd in 1978-82 (RC967.P37 1978).
     A 4th ed. is now being published (RC967.P37 1991).  A 3rd
     volume was first published in 1979 and revised in 1985
     (RC967.T48 1985).  SciRR holds a mixed and incomplete set,
     described as follows:

        Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology.  George D.
           Clayton, Florence E. Clayton, editors.  4th ed.  v. 1,
           pt.  A-B.  General principles.   New York,  Wiley,
           c1991.  2 v.              RC967.P37 1991, v. 1 <SciRR>
              Includes bibliographies.

        Patty, F. A.  Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology.
           George D. Clayton, Florence E. Clayton, editors.  3rd
           rev. ed.  v. 2, pt. A-C.  Toxicology.  New York,
           Wiley, c1981-1982.  3 v.  RC967.P37 1978, v. 2 <SciRR>
              Includes bibliographic references.
              SciRR set lacks v. 2C.

        Theory and rationale of industrial hygiene practice.
           Lewis J. Cralley, Lester V. Cralley, editors.  2nd ed.
           pt. A-B.  New York, Wiley, c1985.  2 v.  (Patty's
           industrial hygiene and toxicology, v. 3)
                                           RC967.T48 1985 <SciRR>
              Includes bibliographic references.
              SciRR set lacks v. 3B.


     Ashford, Nicholas Askounes, and Claudia S. Miller.  Chemical
        exposures: low levels and high stakes.  New York, Van
        Nostrand Reinhold, c1991.  214 p.         RA1216.A84 1991
           Bibliography:  p. 183-206.
           Explores aspects of chemical hypersensitivity,
        including allergy, clinical ecology, and controversial

     Calabrese, Edward J.  Multiple chemical interactions.
        Chelsea, Mich., Lewis Publishers, 1991.  704 p.
                                        RA1220.5.C35 1991 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographical references.

     Handbook of pesticide toxicology.  Wayland J. Hayes, Jr.,
        Edward R. Laws, Jr., editors.  San Diego, Academic Press,
        1991.  3 v.                    RA1270.P4H36 1991 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographical references.
           Contents: v. 1. General principles — v. 2-3.
        Pesticides in humans.

     IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to
        humans.  World Health Organization, International Agency
        for Research on Cancer.  Lyon, France, The Agency;
        Distributed by World Health Organization, Distribution
        and Sales Service, 1971-  irregular.
                           RC268.6.I28a (RC268.57.I57 in <SciRR>)
           Includes bibliographies.



     Bretherick, L.  Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical
        hazards.  4th ed. London, Boston, Butterworths, 1990.
        2005 p.                          T55.3.H3B73 1990 <SciRR>
           Previous editions published under title HANDBOOK OF
           Includes bibliographical references.

     Encyclopedia of chemical technology.  3rd ed.  New York,
        Wiley, c1978-1984.  31 v.           TP9.E685 1978 <SciRR>
           See articles under "Industrial hygiene and
        toxicology," "Trace and residue analysis," etc.  Other
        articles containing information about toxicity of
        specific chemicals or classes of chemicals can be located
        under index heading "Toxicity."

     Encyclopaedia of occupational health and safety.  Technical
        editor, Luigi Parmeggiani. 3rd rev. ed.  Geneva,
        International Labour Office, 1983.  2 v.
                                         RC963.3.E53 1983 <SciRR>
           Prepared under the auspices of the International
        Labour Organisation.
           Errata slip inserted in v. 2.
           Includes bibliographies.

     Environmental regulatory glossary.  Edited by G. William
        Frick and Thomas F. P. Sullivan.  5th ed.  Rockville,
        Md., Government Institutes, c1990.  449 p.
                                    TD169.3.E58 1990 <SciRR Dict>
           Rev. ed. of Environmental glossary. 4th ed. (1986).

     Gosselin, Robert E., Roger P. Smith, and Harold C. Hodge.
        Clinical toxicology of commercial products.  With the
        assistance of Jeanette E. Braddock.  5th ed.  Baltimore,
        Williams & Wilkins, c1984.  2009 p. in various pagings.
                                          RA1211.G63 1984 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographies.

     Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary.  11th ed.  Rev. by
        N. Irving Sax and Richard J. Lewis.  New York, Van
        Nostrand Reinhold, c1987.  1288 p.
                                         QD5.C5 1987 <SciRR Desk>
           Rev. ed. of The Condensed chemical dictionary. 10th
        ed. rev. by Gessner G. Hawley (1981).

     Howard, Philip H.  Handbook of environmental fate and
        exposure data for organic chemicals.  Chelsea, Mich.,
        Lewis Publishers, c1989-91.  3 v.
           Includes bibliographical references.
                                         TD176.4.H69 1989 <SciRR>
           Contents: v. 1. Large production and priority
        pollutants. — v. 2. Solvents. — v. 3. Pesticides.

     Index of hazardous contents of commercial products in
        schools and colleges.  The Forum for Scientific
        Excellence, Inc.  Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott, c1990.
        633 p.                           T55.3.H3I53 1990 <SciRR>

     Kaye, Sidney.  Handbook of emergency toxicology: a guide for
        the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of
        poisoning.  5th ed.  Springfield, Ill., Thomas, 1988.
        556 p.  (American lecture series, no. 1034)
                                        RA1224.5.K38 1988 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographies.

     Lewis, Richard J.  Carcinogenically active chemicals: a
        reference guide.  New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1991.
        1153 p.                          RC268.6.L48 1991 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographical references (p. 1135-1153).

     ——-  Food additives handbook.  New York, Van Nostrand
        Reinhold, c1989.  592 p.        RA1270.F6L49 1989 <SciRR>
           Focuses on toxicological effects of food additives.

     ——-  Hazardous chemicals desk reference.  2nd ed.  New
        York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991.  1579 p.
                                         T55.3.H3L49 1991 <SciRR>

     The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and
        biologicals.  Susan Budavari, editor.  11th ed.,
        centennial ed.  Rahway, N.J., Merck, 1989.  1 v. (various
        pagings)                        RS51.M4 1989 <SciRR Desk>

     OSHA regulated hazardous substances: health, toxicity,
        economic, and technological data.  Occupational Safety
        and Health Administration, U.S. Dept. of Labor.  Park
        Ridge, N.J., Noyes Data Corp., c1990.  2 v. (2294 p.)
           Includes bibliographical references.
                                         T55.3.H3O79 1990 <SciRR>

     Pestline: material safety data sheets for pesticides and
        related chemicals.  Occupational Health Services, Inc.
        New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1991.  2 v. (2097 p.)
           Includes bibliographical references.
                                         SB952.5.P48 1991 <SciRR>

     Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances.
        Microfiche ed.  Oct. 1987-  Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S. Dept.
        of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service,
        Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for
        Occupational Safety and Health.  Washington, U.S. Govt.
        Print. Off., quarterly.                      <SciRR Desk>
           Published in print format, 1971-86 (RA1215.N37a).
        Title, 1971-74, Toxic substances.
           SciRR also holds last printed ed. (1985-86.  5 v.
           SuDocs call no. HE 20.7112/3: month year, in N&CPR.

     Sax, N. Irving, and Richard J. Lewis.  Dangerous properties
        of industrial materials.  7th ed.  New York, Van Nostrand
        Reinhold, c1989.  3 v.       T55.3.H3S3 1989 <SciRR Desk>
           First published in 1951 under title Handbook of
        dangerous materials (T55.S3); 1957 and subsequent
        editions published under present title.  Call number
        changed to T55.3.H3S3 with 1968 ed.
           Includes bibliographies.

     Shepard, Thomas H.  Catalog of teratogenic agents.  6th ed.
        Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, c1989.  793 p.
                                           QM691.S53 1989 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographies.
           1st ed. (1973.  QL991.S48 1973).  New edition
        announced for 1992.

     The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data.  Edited
        by Robert E. Lenga.  2nd ed.  Milwaukee, Wis., Sigma-
        Aldrich Corp., c1988.  2 v. (4098 p.)
                                         T55.3.H3S54 1988 <SciRR>

     Sittig, Marshall.  Handbook of toxic and hazardous chemicals
        and carcinogens.  2nd ed.  Park Ridge, N.J., Noyes
        Publications, c1985.  950 p.      RA1193.S58 1985 <SciRR>
           Bibliography: p. 14-18.
           3rd ed., c1991.


     Best's safety directory.  Oldwick, N.J., A. M. Best Co.,
        1946-  annual.                           T55.A1B4 <SciRR>
           "Featuring digests of OSHA guidelines and the Manual
        of modern safety techniques."
           Catalog of safety products and distributors.

     Directory of environmental information sources.  Edited by
        Thomas F. P. Sullivan; compiled by editorial staff,
        Government Institutes, Inc.  3rd ed.  Rockville, Md.,
        Government Institutes, Inc., c1990.  299 p.
                                    TD169.5.D57 1990 <SciRR Desk>

     Directory of state and territorial environmental health
        services.  Rev.  Washington, Public Health Foundation,
        1986.  1 v.                      RA566.3.D57 1986 <SciRR>
           "Produced by the Public Health Foundation with support
        from the Center for Environmental Health, Centers for
        Disease Control."

     Directory of testing laboratories.  Compiled by ASTM.
        Philadelphia, Pa., American Society for Testing and
        Materials, c1987-  annual.     TA416.5.U6D55 <SciRR Desk>
           Continues the updated monograph:  American Society for
        Testing and Materials. Directory of testing laboratories,
           Contains both U.S. and international listings.

     Directory of toxicological and related testing laboratories.
        Regulatory Assistance Corporation.  New York, Hemisphere
        Pub. Corp., c1991.  103 p.      RA1193.7.D56 1991 <SciRR>

     EPA risk assessment guidelines and information directory.
        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Rockville, Md.,
        Government Institutes, 1988.  1 v.
                                        RC268.65.E63 1988 <SciRR>
           At head of title: U.S. Environmental Protection
        Agency, Office of Health & Environmental Assessment,
        Office of Emergency & Remedial Response, Office of Solid
        Waste & Emergency Response.
           Directory includes sections on data bases, computer
        models, bibliographic resources, and human resources.


     Code of federal regulations.  Washington, Office of the
        Federal Register, National Archives and Records
        Administration; For sale by the Supt. of Documents, U.S.
        Govt. Print. Off., 1938-  annual.           KF70.A3 <Law>
           SuDocs call no. AE2.106/3:year, in N&CPR.
           Selected relevant regulations, as of 1991, are listed
        below.  State regulations may be more stringent than
        federal regulations.
           29 CFR 1910 — Occupational safety and health
              standards.  Subpart Z lists toxic and hazardous
              substances, and permissible exposure limits.
           40 CFR 50 — National primary and secondary ambient
              air quality standards.
           40 CFR 61 — National emission standards for hazardous
        air pollutants.
           40 CFR 141 — National primary drinking water
           40 CFR 143 — National secondary drinking water
           40 CFR 170 — Worker protection standards for
        agricultural pesticides.
           40 CFR 180 — Tolerances and exemptions from
              tolerances for pesticide chemicals in or on raw
              agricultural commodities.
           40 CFR 185 — Tolerances for pesticides in food.
           40 CFR 186 — Tolerances for pesticides in animal
           40 CFR 302 — Designation, reportable quantities, and
              notification.  Identifies reportable quantities for
              releases of substances designated in the
              Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation,
              and Liability Act and the Clean Water Act.

     Cook, Warren A.  Occupational exposure limits—worldwide.
        Akron, Ohio, American Industrial Hygiene Assoc., c1987.
        308 p.                          RA1229.5.C66 1987 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographies and indexes.

     Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological
        exposure indices.  5th ed.  Cincinnati, Ohio, American
        Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1986.
        695, 49 p.                              RA1229.5.D63 1986
           Earlier editions: 1962 and 1966, Documentation of
        threshold limit values (RA1211.A6); 1971, Documentation
        of threshold limit values for substances in workroom air
        (RA1211.A58 1971); 1980, present title (RA1229.D6 1980).
           Includes bibliographies.

     Suspect chemicals sourcebook.  Burlingame, Calif., Roytech
        Publications, c1981-  quarterly.       TP202.S872 <SciRR>
           Annual from 1981 to 1987, quarterly looseleaf from
           Key guide to 7,000 substances covered by approximately
        60 different federal and state advisory programs.

     Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical
        agents and biological exposure indices.  Cincinnati,
        Ohio, American Conference of Governmental Industrial
        Hygienists, [1975]-                  RA1229.5.T57 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographical references.
           Former title TLVs, threshold limit values for chemical
        substances in the work environment adopted by ACGIH for
        ...  (title and call number vary).
           LC does not have a complete set.

     Young, Daniel J.  How to comply with the OSHA hazard
        communication standard: a complete guide to compliance
        with OSHA worker right-to-know regulations.  New York,
        Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1989.  193 p.
                                          T10.68.Y68 1989 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographical references (p. 109-110).

HISTORICAL SOURCES which reflect prior scientific knowledge of
     hazardous effects of chemical substances are important in
     cases of toxic exposure litigation.  In addition to
     publications listed here, earlier editions of important
     works are noted in other sections of this guide.

     Browning, Ethel Chadwick.  Toxicity and metabolism of
        industrial solvents. Amsterdam, New York, Elsevier Pub.
        Co., 1965.  739 p.                   RA1270.S6B72 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographical references.
           Earlier versions published as The Toxicity of
        industrial organic solvents: summaries of published work.
        (1937.  HD7695.A3 no. 80); Rev. ed. (1952.   HD7695.A3
        no. 80b).

     Castleman, Barry I.  Historical research on toxic
        substances.  In  Asbestos: medical and legal aspects.
        3rd ed.  Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice Hall Law &
        Business, c1990.  p. 569-650.    RC775.A8C38 1990 <SciRR>
           Includes bibliographical references.

     Cook, Warren A.  Historical development of occupational
        exposure limits.  In Occupational exposure
        limits—worldwide.  Akron, Ohio, American Industrial
        Hygiene Association, c1987.  p. 9-16.
                                        RA1229.5.C66 1987 <SciRR>

     Pollution, major sources for research, 1800-1950
        [microform].  Washington, University Publications of
        America, c1980.  36 microfilm reels.  35 mm.
                                     Microfilm 88/247 (H) <MicRR>
           Accompanied by a printed reel guide (MicRR Guide No.
           Contents: pt. 1. Environmental pollution. — pt. 2.
        Pollution and health.

     Threshold limit values: discussion and thirty-five year
        index with recommendations.  Edited by Marshall E.
        LaNier.  Cincinnati, Ohio, American Conference of
        Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1984.  535 p.
        (Annals of the American Conference of Governmental
        Industrial Hygienists, v. 9).   RA1229.5.T52 1984 <SciRR>
           Spine title Thirty-five years of TLVs.
           Includes bibliographies.

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS can be identified using:

     British Library.  Lending Division.  Index of Conference
        Proceedings Received (1974-)
           Does not index individual papers.    Z7403.B8b <SciRR>
     Conference Papers Index (1973-)            Z7403.C84 <SciRR>
           Indexes individual papers.

     Directory of Published Proceedings. Series SEMT:
        Science/engineering/ medicine/technology (1965-)
                                                Z7409.D56 <SciRR>
           Does not index individual papers.

     Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings (1978-)
                                                 Z7403.I4 <SciRR>
           Indexes individual papers.

     Proceedings in Print (1964-)              Z5063.A2P7 <SciRR>
           Does not index individual papers.


     Conference on Environmental Health in the 21st Century,
        Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1988. [Proceedings]
        Environmental health perspectives: EHP, v. 86, June 1990:
        173-309.                                      RA565.A1E13
           Sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental
        Health Sciences.

     Exposure assessment for epidemiology and hazard control.
        Edited by S. M. Rappaport and Thomas J. Smith.  American
        Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
        Chelsea, Mich., Lewis Publishers, c1991.  313 p.
                                                RA566.27.E97 1990
           Proceedings of the International Workshop on Exposure
        Assessment for Epidemiology and Hazard Control, held at
        Woods Hole, Mass., Apr. 18-19, 1988.
           Includes bibliographical references.

     Methods for assessing and reducing injury from chemical
        accidents.  Edited by Philippe Bourdeau and Gareth Green.
        Prepared by Scientific Group on Methodologies for the
        Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC).  Chichester,
        Eng., New York, Wiley, c1989.  303 p.  (IPCS joint
        symposia, 11) (SCOPE, 40) (SGOMSEC, 6)  RA565.A2 M48 1989
           Papers from a workshop held in New Delhi, Jan. 27-Feb.
        2, 1987.
           "Published on behalf of the Scientific Committee on
        Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) of the International
        Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) ... [and other
           Includes bibliographies.

     Pesticide residues and food safety: a harvest of viewpoints.
        Developed from a special conference sponsored by the
        Division of Agrochemicals of the American Chemical
        Society, Point Clear, Alabama, January 21-25, 1990.  B.
        G. Tweedy and others, editors.  Washington, American
        Chemical Society, 1991.  360 p.  (ACS symposium series,
        446)                                    TX571.P4P464 1991
           Includes bibliographical references.

GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS can be identified in the following

     American Statistics Index (1974-)
                                       Z7554.U5A46 <MRR>, <N&CPR>
        (CD-ROM, Statistical Masterfile, available in MRR)

     CIS Index to Publications of the United States Congress
        (1970-)                           KF49.C62 <MRR>, <N&CPR>
        (CD-ROM in MRR)

     Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications
        (1895-)                          Z1223.A18 <SciRR>, <MRR>
        (CD-ROM in N&CPR)


     Annual report on carcinogens.  Prepared by National
        Toxicology Program, U.S. Public Health Service.
        Washington, Dept. of Health and Human Services, 1980-
        irregular.                  SuDocs HE20.23/4:year <N&CPR>
           National Library of Medicine call no. W1 AN7 62T
           Available for purchase from National Technical
        Information Service.
           "Pursuant to section 301(b) (4) of the Public Health
        Service Act as amended by section 262, PL 95-622."
           Executive summary, foreword, introduction, categories
        of chemicals catalogued, and the Regulatory Council's
        statement on setting priorities for regulating
        carcinogens, for 1980- also issued separately as Annual
        report on carcinogens. Executive summary.

     Genetic monitoring and screening in the workplace.
        Washington, Congress of the U.S., Office of Technology
        Assessment, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.  262 p.
           "OTA-BA-455."                       RA1224.3.G456 1990
           Includes bibliographical references.

     Identifying and regulating carcinogens.  Washington,
        Congress of the U.S., Office of Technology Assessment,
        U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1987.  251 p.
           "OTA-BP-H-42."                RC268.6.I34 1987 <SciRR>
           Bibliography: p. 235-249.

     Neurotoxicity: identifying and controlling poisons of the
        nervous system: new developments in neuroscience.
        Washington, Congress of the U.S., Office of Technology
        Assessment, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.  361 p.
           "OTA-BA-436."                          RC347.5.N5 1990
           Includes bibliographical references.

     Reproductive health hazards in the workplace.  Washington,
        Congress of the U.S., Office of Technology Assessment,
        U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1985.  422 p.
           "OTA-BA-266."                        RA1224.2.R47 1985
           Includes bibliographies.

TECHNICAL REPORTS can be identified in the following indexes:

     EPA Publications Bibliography (1977-)   Z5863.P7U58a <SciRR>
     Government Reports Announcements and Index  (1946-)
                                                Z7916.G78 <SciRR>
     NTIS Title Index on Microfiche  (1964-)  Uncataloged <SciRR>


     The following reports are available in the Microform
     collection of the Science Reading Room.  They are sold by
     the National Technical Information Service, Springfield,
     Virginia 22161.

     Directory of information resources related to health,
        exposure, and risk assessment of air toxics.  Sponsored
        by and prepared in cooperation with Eastern Research
        Group, Inc., Arlington, Mass.  Research Triangle Park,
        N.C., Environmental  Protection Agency, Air Risk
        Information Support Center, Aug. 1989.  92 p.
        (EPA/450/3-88/015)                    PB90-119785 <SciRR>

     Glossary of terms related to health, exposure, and risk
        assessment.  Research Triangle Park, N.C., Environmental
        Protection Agency, Air Risk Information Support Center,
        Mar. 1989.  43 p.  (EPA/450/3-88/016) PB89-184584 <SciRR>
           Also available from Supt. of Docs.

     Immerman, F. W., and J. L. Schaum.  Nonoccupational
        pesticide exposure study (NOPES).  (Final rept. Aug 85-
        Feb 88).  Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection
        Agency, Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.
        Research Triangle Park, N.C., Research Triangle Inst.,
        Jan. 1990.  256 p.  (EPA/600/3-90/003)
                                              PB90-152224 <SciRR>

     Konz, J. J., and others.  Exposure factors handbook.
        Prepared for U.S. Environmental  Protection  Agency,
        Office of Health and Environmental Assessment.
        Springfield, Va., Versar, Inc., July 1989.  273 p.
        (OHEA-E-286)                          PB90-106774 <SciRR>

     Toxicological profile for lead (final rept).  Sponsored by
        Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry,
        Atlanta,Ga., and Environmental Protection Agency,
        Washington, D.C.  Syracuse, N.Y., Syracuse Research
        Corp., June 1990.  217 p.  (ASTDR/TP-88/17)
                                              PB90-267378 <SciRR>

     Toxicological profile for mercury (final rept).  Sponsored
        by  Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry,
        Atlanta, Ga., and Environmental Protection Agency,
        Washington, D.C.  Fairfax, Va., Clement Associates, Inc.,
        Dec. 1989.                            PB90-181256 <SciRR>
        178 p.  (ATSDR/TP-89/16)

     Toxicological profile for pentachlorophenol (final rept).
        Sponsored  by  Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
        Registry, Atlanta, Ga., and Environmental Protection
        Agency, Washington, D.C.  Washington, Clement Associates,
        Inc., Dec. 1989.                      PB90-182163 <SciRR>
        146 p.  (ATSDR/TP-89/19)


     Denning, John V.  Women's work and health hazards: a
        selected bibliography.  London, Dept. of Occupational
        Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine,
        1984.  345 p.                    Z7963.E7D46 1984 <SciRR>

     Environmental toxins: psychological, behavioral, and
        sociocultural aspects, 1973-1989.  Cheryl Brown Travis,
        Barbara E. McLean, Carlotta Ribar, editors.  Washington,
        American Psychological Association, c1989.  127 p.
        (Bibliographies in psychology, no. 5)   Z7892.B44E58 1989

     Toxic and hazardous materials: a sourcebook and guide to
        information sources.  Edited by James K. Webster.  New
        York, Greenwood Press, 1987.  431 p.  (Bibliographies and
        indexes in science and technology, no. 2)
                                        Z7914.S17T69 1987 <SciRR>

     Wexler, Philip.  Information resources in toxicology.  2nd
        ed.  New York, Elsevier, c1988.  510 p.
                                        RA1193.4.W49 1988 <SciRR>

ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING SERVICES that index relevant journal
articles and other literature are listed below.  Some terms are
suggested as aids in searching.  In most indexes, names of
chemicals or classes of chemicals can be searched directly.  See
also indexes for locating government publications, conference
proceedings, and technical reports, listed in other sections of
this Tracer Bullet.  Consult reference librarian for locations of
abstracting and indexing services.

     Applied Science & Technology Index (1913-)  Z7913.I7 <SciRR>
        See:  Environmental Health
                 Hazardous Substances
                 Health Risk Assessment
                 Occupational Diseases
                 Occupational Health
        See   subheadings:
                 —Diseases and Hygiene; under specific
                 occupations, e.g., Office Workers—Diseases and
                 —Physiological Effect; under chemical names,
                 e.g., Solvents—Physiological Effect.

     Biological Abstracts (1926-)               QH301.B37 <SciRR>
                 Search using key words from article title.

     Biological & Agricultural Index (1916-)    Z5073.A46 <SciRR>
        (Formerly Agricultural Index, 1916-1964)
        See:  Food Analysis—Pesticides
                 Genetic Toxicology
                 Mutagenic Substances
                 Occupational Diseases
                 Pesticide Residues in the Body
        See   subheading:
                 —Injurious Effects; under types of chemicals,
                 e.g., Pesticides—Injurious Effects

     Chemical Abstracts (1907-)                   QD1.A51 <SciRR>
        See   headings in General Subject Index:
                 Air Pollution
                 Disease, Occupational
                 Environmental Pollution
        See   subheading in Chemical Substance Index:
                 —Biological Studies; under names of chemicals,
                 e.g., Benzene, Biological Studies

     Environment Abstracts Annual (1971-)       GF1.E553 <SciRR>
        (Formerly published with companion volume Environment
        Index, 1971-1987.)
        See:  Food Contamination
                 Health Safety, Occupational
                 Risk Assessment
                 Toxic Substances

     Environmental Periodicals Bibliography (1972-)
                                            Z5863.E57E58 <SciRR>
        See:  Dose-Response Relationship
                 Exposure Effect
                 Health Hazard
                 Occupational Exposure
                 Risk Assessment
                 Toxic Substance Exposure

     General Science Index (1978-)              Z7401.G46 <SciRR>
        See:  Chemicals—Safety Measures
                 Environmental Health
                 Hazardous Substances
                 Industrial Health
                 Occupational Diseases

     Health and Safety Science Abstracts (1973-)
                                              HD7260.S339 <SciRR>
        (Formerly Safety Science Abstracts, 1973-1987)
        See:  Federal Regulations
                 Risk Assessment
                 Threshold Limit Values

     Index Medicus (1960-)                      Z6660.I42 <SciRR>
        See:  Environmental Exposure
                 Hazardous Substances
                 Occupational Diseases

     Magazine Index (1980-)   Available in several formats at LC
        See:  Environmental Health
                 Environmentally Induced Diseases
                 Hazardous Substances
                 Health Risk Assessment
                 Industrial Hygiene
                 Occupational Diseases

     Pollution Abstracts (1970-)                TD172.P65 <SciRR>
        See:  Dose Response Effects
                 Hazardous Materials
                 Occupational Exposure
                 Risk Assessment

     PAIS International in Print (1915-)              Z7164.E2P34
        (Formerly Public Affairs Information Service Bulletin,
        1915-1990, Z7163.P9)
        See:  Environmental Health
                 Hazardous Materials
                 Industrial Hygiene
                 Industrial Toxicology
                 Occupational Diseases
        See   subheadings:
                 —Diseases and Hygiene; under specific
                 occupations, e.g., Medical Workers—Diseases and

     Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature (1900-)      AI3.R48
        See:  Chemicals
                 Environmental Health
                 Hazardous Materials
                 Pesticide Residues in Food

     Toxicology Abstracts (1978-)             RA1190.T695 <SciRR>
        See:  Dose-Response Effects
                 Occupational Exposure
                 Risk Assessment
                 Safety Regulations
                 Threshold Limits

     Many of the indexes listed above are also available online
or in CD-ROM format.  Some libraries may provide access to these
formats.  Other electronic data bases likely to be useful for
topics related to chemical exposure include:

     Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System (CCRIS)
     Environmental Mutagen Information Center (EMIC)
     Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)
     Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

JOURNALS that often contain articles on chemical exposure, risk
assessment, chemical safety and toxicology include:

     American Industrial Hygiene Association. Journal  RC963.A135
     Archives of Environmental Health                   RC963.A22
     Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety           QH545.A1E29
     Environmental Health Perspectives                RA565.A1E13
     Environmental Science & Technology                  TD180.E5
     FDA Consumer                        HD9000.9.U5A1735 <SciRR>
     International Archives of Occupational and Environmental
        Health                                        RC963.A1I58
     Journal of Environmental Health                   RA565.A1S3
     Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology, and Oncology
     Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews  RC963.A1S83
     Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology            RA1190.R44


     Agocs, Mary M., and others.  Mercury exposure from interior
        latex paint.  New England journal of medicine, v. 323,
        Oct. 18, 1990: 1096-1101.                          R11.B7

     Annas, George J.  Fetal protection and employment
        discrimination: the Johnson Controls Case.  New England
        journal of medicine, v. 325, Sept. 5, 1991: 740-743.

     Dunnette, David A.  Assessing risks and preventing disease
        from environmental chemicals.  Journal of community
        health, v. 14, fall 1989: 169-186.              RA421.J86

     Edelman, Philip.  Environmental and workplace contamination
        in the semiconductor industry: implications for future
        health of the workforce and community.  Environmental
        health perspectives: EHP, v. 86, June 1990: 291-295.

     Ettinger, Harry J.  Keeping the OSHA Permissible Exposure
        Limits current.  In American Industrial Hygiene
        Association. Journal, v. 51, Oct. 1990: A679-A686.

     Gregory, Arthur Robert.  Uncertainty in health risk
        assessments.  Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, v.
        11, Apr. 1990: 191-200.                        RA1190.R44

     Hadden, Susan G.  Providing citizens with information about
        health effects of hazardous chemicals.  Journal of
        occupational medicine, v. 31, June 1989: 528-534.

     Matte, Thomas D., and others.  Guidelines for medical
        screening in the workplace.  Occupational medicine: state
        of the art reviews, v. 5, July/Sept. 1990: 439-456.

     Nelkin, Dorothy.  Communicating technological risk: the
        social construction of risk perception.  Annual review of
        public health, v. 10, 1989: 95-113.             RA421.A66

     Shane, Barbara S.  Human reproductive hazards.
        Environmental science & technology, v. 23, Oct. 1989:
        1187-1195.                                       TD180.E5

     Solet, David, Thomas G. Robins, and Carlos Sampaio.
        Perchloroethylene exposure assessment among dry cleaning
        workers.  In  American Industrial Hygiene Association.
        Journal, v. 51, Oct. 1990: 566-574.            RC963.A135

     Tilton, Beverly E.  Health effects of tropospheric ozone.
        Environmental science & technology, v. 23, Mar. 1989:
        257-263.                                         TD180.E5

     Van Camp, Ann J.  Material safety data sheets: online and
        CD-ROM sources.  Online,  v. 14, Mar. 1990: 97-99.

     Zeckhauser, Richard J.  Risk within reason.  Science, v.
        248, May 4, 1990: 559-564.                         Q1.S35

SELECTED MATERIALS available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet
boxes include:

     Access to medical and exposure records.  Washington, U.S.
        Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health
        Administration, 1989.  11 p.  (OSHA 3110)

     Cancer risk from outdoor exposure to air toxics. Final
        report. Research Triangle Park, N.C., U.S. Environmental
        Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and
        Standards, Sept. 1990.  2 v.  (EPA-450/1-90-004a, EPA-

     Chemicals in progress bulletin.  Washington, U.S.
        Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Toxic
        Substances.  v. 12, April 1991.

     Environmental health data files available from the Federal
        Computer Products Center. Springfield, Va., National
        Technical Information Service, Sept. 1990.  (PR-758)  16

     Hazard communication guidelines for compliance.  Washington,
        U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health
        Administration, 1990.  21 p.  (OSHA 3111)

     Safety & health guide for the chemical industry.
        Washington, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety
        and Health Administration, 1986.  20 p.  (OSHA 3091)

     TIP: Toxicology Information Program.  Bethesda, Md., U.S.
        Department of Health and Human Services. National
        Institutes of Health, Mar. 1991.  (National Library of
        Medicine Fact Sheet)  2 p.


     Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
     Public Health Service
     U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services
     1600 Clifton Road
     Atlanta, Georgia 30333
     Telephone: (404) 639-6000

     Environmental Defense Fund
     257 Park Avenue South
     New York, New York 10010
     Telephone: (212) 505-2100, (202) 387-3500
        Provides information on legislative interests,

     National Toxics Campaign Fund
     168 Commonwealth Avenue
     Boston, Massachusetts 02134
     Telephone: (617) 232-0327
        Publications and information on hazardous waste and other
        pollutants.  Sponsors the Citizen's Environmental Testing
        Laboratory, which provides laboratory testing services
        for drinking water and other suspected hazardous waste

     Certified poison control centers are listed in PHYSICIANS'
DESK REFERENCE (RS75.P5 <SciRR DESK>), among other sources.
Poison control centers are regional, open 24 hours a day, and
provide direct dialing or toll-free access.  Staff members of
these centers are trained to provide information and referrals to
hospitals when necessary.

     To identify the current addresses of other relevant
organizations and research projects, consult ENCYCLOPEDIA OF
DIRECTORY (AS25.D5 <SciRR DESK>) under such keywords as Hazardous
Substances, Toxicology, Environment(al), etc.

Key to symbols:
     <SciRR>  Science Reading Room
     <B&E>    Business and Economics alcove
     <LAW>    Law Library
     <MRR>    Main Reading Room
     <MicRR>  Microform Reading Room
     <N&CPR>  Newspaper and Current Periodical Reading Room
     <NLM>    National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.


Note: This file has been edited for use on computer networks. This editing required the removal of diacritics, underlining, and fonts such as italics and bold. You can obtain a copy of the original by writing to the Science Reference Section at the above address.

kde 8/92

HTML markup by Walter Henry. Inference of cite and bold done without reference to printed original; any errors are mine.