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Re: "Perfect" replacements for "perfect" bindings.

-----Original Message-----
From: Duncan Campbell <dmc@xxxxxxxx>
To: BOOK_ARTS-L@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx <BOOK_ARTS-L@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Thursday, April 23, 1998 8:59 PM
Subject: Re: "Perfect" replacements for "perfect" bindings.

What do you mean by "notches the spine"?
Thanks for taking the time to post. You did a great job of explaining the

>There are many variations on the specific process of fan binding but the
>overall concept remains the same.  The first method we used was almost
>completely by hand.
>You start with a text block of loose pages (single sheets).  If you are
>starting with a previously bound book you need to trim off the spine to
>free up the pages.  If the book is in folded sigs. the folds need to be
>trimmed off also to allow for the fanning explained later.  The last
>consideration in preparing the text block is to make sure the spine is
>flat.  For example, if you were fan-binding a book that had been rounded
>and backed you would need to flatten the backing and eliminate the round.
>Once you have free/loose pages in a text block with a flat spine you place
>a single folded endsheet both in front and back.  Jog the text block, with
>endsheets, to the spine and the head.  This next step is where you need a
>machine designed for fan-binding.  Ours had a bed or table about four
>inches above the base of the machine (which sat on a table about waist
>high). We placed the spine of the book on this bed.  A clamp running off of
>compressed air then closed to hold the book tight.  The bed was on a track
>and had small rollers/wheels that allowed it to be pushed toward the rear
>of the machine leaving the text block hanging mid-air so to speak.  The
>clamp was built to pivot 180 degrees.  After rotating, the spine of the
>text was then pointing upwards towards the operator.
>With me  so far.  It's difficult to do this with out pictures.
>The rolling bed and the clamp were built so that each book, when pivoted,
>had about four inches rising above the clamp.  You then push the text
>block, still held upside down by the clamp, away from yourself fanning the
>pages.  You then apply a coating of glue to the fanned pages; applying with
>a brush in the same direction you are fanning the book, in this case away
>from you.  Then you push the book from the other side, towards you, and
>apply glue in the same manner.
>Once the pages have been glued you run a special strip of
>mull/super/backlining (which ever you want to call it) through a glue
>machine and place it on the spine.  It is special because it is constructed
>to stretch from short side to short side.  This is to allow for some give
>both throughout the life of the book and, most importantly, during rounding
>and backing.  The strip is wide enough to cover the spine and about one
>inch on each the front and back.  Once the strip has been applied you
>smooth down the spine just a little to remove any air bubbles but not so
>forcefully as to squish out any excess glue.
>Almost done.
>Lastly you rotate the clamp 180 again and releasing and catching the book.
>The book is then placed on a flat surface, spine down, to dry overnight.
>The surface should be something that doesn't rust or isn't painted.  We
>found that the moisture from the glue rusts our metal tables and the paint
>drys to the spine and is pulled off the table.  We ended up covering a
>table in buckram.
>We've since moved upward to an almost fully machine operated process that
>replaces the one machine, that was basically an expensive air clamp, with
>three machines.  The first notches the spine of the book.  This has the
>effect of tripling the surface area of the spine.  The next machine holds
>the book in place, after the operator has added folded endsheets, while a
>"staple" is used to hold the book together.  The staple is a small clamp,
>two 1.5" X 1.5" metal bars, one front and one back, with two rods that have
>springs and a quick release.  The staple is closed around the book in the
>second machine securely with a foot lever.  The "stapled" book is then set
>spine side down into a machine that has a roller and a glue basin.  The
>roller makes six passes, three one direction three the other.  The machine
>is built so that the passing roller does the fanning.  Then the stapled
>book is set to dry by being hung in the open air on a rack.  It takes about
>an hour to dry well enough.  Lastly the book has the same backlining
>applied by an operator with a glue machine.  Since the book is dry by then
>it's soon on it's way to be trimmed.
>Not only is the second way easier to describe it's much faster and much
>cleaner.  As I said there have been many variations on the mechanics but
>over all each machine will notch the spine, fan the book, apply the glue
>and attach backlining.
>Hope you found it worth all the reading and sorry it took so long to post.
>Happiness bought and paid for
>is happiness none the less.

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