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Re: Info about paper needed



Hi,=20
Here it is. Hope it's not to much info for your computer. Tell me how things=
=20
work for your or if you have any questions.
Patty Grass


Batik and Other Resists for Paper
Patricia Grass

Batik

Batik is a resist process; something is applied to the surface of paper or=20
fabric that will resist the dye color and prevent it from coloring the areas=
=20
where the resist is applied. A lot of things have been used as resists--wax,=
=20
paste, string, rubber bands, and the new rubber based gutta resists or=20
similar water based resists used in silk painting. Besides fabric and paper,=
=20
other items made with this type of process include the Ukrainian Easter eggs=
=20
and reduction linoleum block printing.=20

The usual application of colors goes from light to dark. A white paper has a=
=20
resist applied to certain areas. In the final appearance of the paper these=20
areas will be white, resisting all the dyes.The paper is then dyed a light=20
color. After the dye dries, more resist is applied to the paper covering any=
=20
areas you want to remain this light color--they are protected from further=20
dyeing. A medium shade of color is applied and let dry. More resist is=20
applied to the areas that are to remain this medium color. A final dark shad=
e=20
is applied and let dry. When the resist is removed all the lighter colors ar=
e=20
exposed.

How does paper batik differ from fabric batik?

You can use many of the same tools and materials with paper batik that you=20
use with fabric. The main difference is in how the dye is applied and how th=
e=20
wax is removed. Some papers, especially those with a hard finish such as=20
drawing paper can be dipped into a vat of dye just as with fabric. But some=20
of the thinner papers, even though many Japanese paper have great wet=20
strength, just cannot stand up to being lifted into and out of the dye vat,=20
especially when they have a lot of wax on them. I find it best to apply the=20
dye with a brush to all types of paper.

The removal of wax when you are finished is similar in both paper and fabric=
=20
up to a point. In both cases the initial removal of wax is done with an iron=
=20
and newspaper. With fabric, the wax residue is finally removed in the laundr=
y=20
or dry cleaning process. You cannot do this with paper. All wax is removed b=
y=20
ironing between sheets of newspaper.  And all the wax is never completely=20
removed.  This had never posed a problem to me. In fact, I like leaving a=20
little wax to protect the paper. I have never had any problem folding the=20
paper or gluing the paper either with glue stick, PVA, or wheat paste.

Another difference is that with fabric you can get a traditional crackle=20
effect by scrunching up the fabric with its wax so that the wax cracks and=20
dye can seep into the cracks and gives you this crackled effect. I have neve=
r=20
been successful with cracking the wax on paper--the paper just rips.  In=20
fabric, crackle is controlled by the type of wax you use; the higher the=20
proportion of paraffin to beeswax, the more the crackle. We use straight=20
paraffin so there is no problem with the wax cracking--it=E2=80=99s the pape=
r that=20
seems to tear as the wax cracks.

Papers for Batik

The paper needs to have a surface that will let the wax penetrate through to=
=20
the other side. If the wax lays on the surface of the paper, the dye can be=20
absorbed by the paper fibers and migrate under the wax. If you are dying the=
=20
paper by dipping it in a vat of dye rather than brushing on the dye, the=20
paper will become colored from the backside if the wax does not penetrate th=
e=20
paper.

My favorite paper for batik is Sumi-e Practice Paper purchased in tablets of=
=20
50 sheets from the local art supply store. The package used to say the paper=
=20
was Kozo (mulberry); although it doesn=E2=80=99t say this anymore, it must h=
ave some=20
mulberry content as it is strong when wet. I have experimented with other=20
Japanese papers and they work OK  but I keep coming back to the Sumi-e=20
Practice Pad.  The wax penetrates easily and so does the dye--both sides are=
=20
colored with one application of the dye.

I also like Canson acid free drawing paper in a tablet. It=E2=80=99s a nice=20=
weight=20
for using in books and takes wax and dye well. I have also used Como Drawing=
,=20
Arches Text, and several etching papers. Again, you are looking for a paper=20
without much sizing so that the wax will penetrate and a paper that will hol=
d=20
up when wet. Although the wax penetrate these paper (as it MUST), these=20
harder surface papers usually do not let the dye penetrate through to the=20
other side of the paper. So, you will have to apply dye to both surfaces.=20
This has an advantage in that you can apply a different color to the other=20
side.=20

Temperature of the wax can also be a factor in wax penetration of the paper.=
=20
Some papers respond better is you use a hotter wax. You must be careful not=20
to get the wax so hot that it catches on fire, something that can easily=20
happen. Temperatures between 200=C2=B0F and 300=C2=B0F.  I find that at 225=
=C2=B0F the wax=20
usually penetrates most paper.

Wax

I always use straight paraffin--the kind you find in the grocery store in th=
e=20
canning section. I learned from an artist who literally painted landscapes i=
n=20
batik. She was very particular about her colors and felt that beeswax left a=
=20
colored residue in her batik paintings and so used only the clear paraffin=20
wax.=20

Equipment For Melting Wax

I use a crock pot to melt my wax. I make sure it has several heat settings,=20
not just on or off. I want to be able to control the temperature of the wax.=
=20
I like the kind of crock pot that has a removable pot. And that pot should b=
e=20
metal. I used a plastic one for awhile but the plastic cracked. The wax=20
expands a little as it melts and it cracked the plastic pot. A deep and=20
narrow shape is best if possible.=20

I also use a thermometer. I use both a candy thermometer and a meat=20
thermometer both of which can attach to the side of the pot. You need one=20
that has a temperature range up to at least 350=C2=B0F.

I like to leave the tools in the wax pot as I work so that they remain hot=20
but if the pot is wide, they tend to fall down into the wax. Attach a wire=20
across the diameter of the pot  in an X shape to keep the tools from falling=
=20
down into the wax.

I also use a table griddle or warming tray with a large flat surface--it wil=
l=20
fit a cookie tray onto itself. Some warming trays do not get hot enough--it=20
should heat up to at least 350=C2=B0 F.  I use this griddle to melt wax for=20=
use=20
with my wooden stamps. I put a cookie tray on the griddle and wax into the=20
cookie tray where I melt it. The stamps need a shallow but broad expanse of=20
wax. They can be dipped into the cookie tray to pick up a load of wax. You=20
can also use this griddle to melt crayons in a small muffin tin for colored=20
wax application. Or, you can melt several cans of wax on this surface. But b=
e=20
careful of melting wax in cans--the cans are very hot and hard to handle. Us=
e=20
a pot holder. Melting wax in several small cans lets several individuals tak=
e=20
hot wax to their place to work but I think it is dangerous and never do it i=
n=20
the classroom--we learn to share.
Never leave wax melting; always keep an eye on it. Wax is very flammable.=20
Keep the lid of the crock pot near by to place on the pot should it burst=20
into flames. But it should never get that far; if the wax is smoking--IT IS=20
TOO HOT. Turn down the heat. Use a thermometer.

Dyes

I use Rit dye--the powdered kind, not the liquid, that you can buy in almost=
=20
any grocery store. They are easy to find and easy to use. I do not add salt=20
as recommended on the package directions. I mix one package of dye powder=20
with two cups of hot water and stir until the powder dissolves. I let the dy=
e=20
cool before applying it to the paper with a brush. I do not keep extra dye=20
left over at the end of the day. It does not dye as well if kept over a=20
period of a few days-- even in a refrigerator.=20

Rit dye already has some salt in it. You may find that as the last dye dries=
=20
actual salt crystals appear on the paper. You can sometimes even brush them=20
off. I think this indicates you have a lot of extra dye, especially the last=
=20
dark color, on your paper. I place the paper in a tray of clear water and=20
gently rinse off the excess dye and salt crystals.  The easiest way to do=20
this is to use door screening. Cut a piece larger than your paper but that=20
will still fit into your tray of water. Lay the paper on the screen and plac=
e=20
screen and paper in the water. Gently rock the tray of water. Then you can=20
lift the paper out of the water with the screen, empty the water and replace=
=20
it with new clear water. Dip the paper again. Do this a few times and the=20
extra dye should be removed. This is all done after the paper is dry but=20
before you iron out all the wax. Let the paper dry, on the screen and iron=20
out the wax.

The dye is set with heat in the wax removal process--ironing. They paper is=20
not going to be washed so colorfastness in washing is not a factor. Many=20
people say that Rit dye fads easily. I have not had that experience. I have=20
books covered with Rit dyed batik paper that have been sitting around my=20
studio for at least 6 years and they have not faded--the black is still as=20
black as ever.

One problem some students have reported is that the black dye seems to come=20
off on their hands as they use the paper in making books. I think this is a=20
result of too much dye in the paper and too much wax removed. I like to leav=
e=20
a little wax in the paper to help protect the surface. If you are having=20
problems try a workable matte fixative spray or something like renaissance=20
wax applied to the surface of the book cover.

I have tried procion cold water (fiber reactive) dyes and occasionally use=20
them. The colors seem harsh to my taste. When working with fabric and procio=
n=20
dyes there is fabric preparation and a fixative (or activator) such as soda=20
ash should be used. I chose not to do any of this with paper, even though=20
soda ash might improve the pH of the paper.

Brushes for Dye Application

I use cheap bristle brushes from the paint store. I like 2' or 3" size. I tr=
y=20
to keep some brushes for dark colors and some for light colors--the bristles=
=20
do retain the dye color.  I do not use foam brushes. They require more=20
pressure on the paper to make them release their load of dye. The dye flows=20
off the bristle brushes more easily. If you brush to hard on the surface of=20
the paper, especially as you add more colors, you can abrade the surface of=20
the paper. I also do not use nylon brushes or any very stiff brushes,  for=20
the same reason--surface abrasion.

Tools

Traditional batik tools can be used on paper. I use the tjanting tool as wel=
l=20
as the traditional Indonesian wooden stamps. I also use kitchen tools such a=
s=20
a potato maser, cookie cutters, and the metal molds used in deep fry pastry=20
making. Metal items work best. I have glued cookie cutters to a 2" x2" x 6"=20
piece of wood and used the cookie cutters as stamps. I made the mistake of=20
using hot glue which, of course, melted in the hot wax. Use a glue that can=20
stand up to the heat. Anything that can stand up to the heat (225=C2=B0-300=
=C2=B0F) of=20
the wax, has a handle so that you can pick it up without getting burned, and=
=20
makes a nice pattern can be used as a batik tool.

I also use brushes. I use the same Bristle brushes from the paint store for=20
broad areas of wax. I usually use really cheap brushes when I want a smaller=
=20
brush. It is good for nothing else after it goes into the wax. Anything you=20
use in the wax has limited possibilities for being used for anything else=20
ever again.

Color

The dyes used in batik are not opaque. That is, when you apply one color ove=
r=20
the top of another, the color applied on top does not cover up the original=20
color and remain true to itself. If I apply blue dye over yellow dye I will=20
get a green color. The colors mix--even though the first color is dry.=20

So some color combinations are difficult to get like a piece with both yello=
w=20
and blue in it.  In fabric batik the area you wanted to be blue could be=20
waxed while the fabric is still white. After dying with yellow, all the wax=20
could be removed. Then areas you wish to remain yellow (and white) would be=20
waxed and the fabric dyed blue. The areas still white would dye true blue. I=
t=20
is a lot easier to remove wax from fabric. I have never been successful in=20
removing wax from paper and re-waxing and re-dyeing.

You can do a little spot dying to get additional colors. Say you have stampe=
d=20
a fish design with a cookie cutter and you want some of those fish yellow an=
d=20
some blue. Dip a small brush in your dye and touch the brush to the surface=20
of the paper. The dye will wick into the paper but be stopped by the outline=
=20
in wax of the fish. You can color the fish as many different colors as you=20
want. Then cover the dyed fish with wax and proceed to dye the rest of the=20
paper. The fish will be protected and retain their color no matter what othe=
r=20
colors you add.

I try to let the batik take on a life of its own and not obsess too much=20
about exact colors. You can do as many different colors as you want . With=20
fabric you can easily do 10-20 different color dips. Paper tends to give up=20
with too many layers of color. I usually confine myself to four color=20
=E2=80=9Cdips=E2=80=9D, actually brushes--white (the paper color), a light c=
olor, a medium=20
color, and a dark color with occasional spot colors.


Basic Batik With The Tjanting Tool


Applying the Wax

The waxing table should be covered with newspaper or other scrap paper. Wax=20
is a real pain- in-the-neck to scrap off things like tables and floors.  The=
=20
wax should be to the proper temperature; start with a temperature of about=20
225=C2=B0F. All your tools should be nearby and the ones you intend to use=20
immediately should be in the wax pot getting hot. Choose a piece of paper.=20
Test the wax on one corner by dropping a spot of wax on the paper; the wax=20
should penetrate to the other side of the paper. If the wax does not=20
penetrate, raise the temperature of the wax. Never heat the wax over 300=C2=
=B0F.

To use the tjanting tool, you fill the tool with wax by dipping it in the wa=
x=20
pot so that the wax flows into the opening in the tool. If you hold the tool=
=20
above the wax pot, the wax will flow out of the tool. If the wax doesn=E2=
=80=99t, the=20
tool is not warn enough.

Since the wax will flow out of the tool we need some way to control that flo=
w=20
and get the tool to our paper without getting wax everywhere.  You will take=
=20
a paper towel and fold it up into a small square about 2" x 2". It=E2=80=99s=
 pretty=20
thick. If you are right handed, place this square of paper towel in the palm=
=20
of your left hand. When you pick up the tjanting tool from the wax pot,=20
immediately press the point of the tool into the paper towel pad in your lef=
t=20
hand. This stops the flow of wax from the tool and lets you move to your=20
paper and have a second or two to think about your design.  Anytime you want=
=20
to stop the waxing process just place the tip of the tool in the paper towel=
=20
pad in your left hand. It=E2=80=99s almost impossible to not get drops of wa=
x on your=20
paper. I almost always just sprinkle some wax drops on each color so it look=
s=20
like they belong.

If you can't think of a design, go with geometry. Lines, triangles, circles=20
put in lines and repeated almost always make a pleasing pattern.  Start with=
=20
a few lines on the paper. Draw some circles between the lines. Put a dot in=20
each circle. Play a little--its only paper and wax.

Beginners seem to go one way or the other--to much white or not enough white=
.=20
Remember anything you cover now with wax is going to be white in the final=20
product.=20
As you apply the wax lift the paper from the table occasionally. The wax can=
=20
penetrate into the newsprint on the table and your paper will stick to the=20
newsprint as the wax cools--so, lift it occasionally. Keep checking the back=
=20
of the paper to make sure that the wax is penetrating the paper. Sometimes=20
thin line do not penetrate or wax applied at the end of a load of wax in the=
=20
tool is to cool and will not penetrate.

First Color

Once you have the wax applied, take you paper to the dyeing area. Again, thi=
s=20
area should be covered with newspaper to protect the area. Select a light=20
color. Apply the dye with a brush covering the whole sheet of paper with dye=
.=20
If your paper has a hard surface and the dye doesn=E2=80=99t penetrate to th=
e other=20
side, turn the paper over and brush dye on the back.

Wait a minute os so to let the dye absorb into the paper as much as possible=
.=20
Use a paper towel or rag to blot up any excess dye. I like to leave some dye=
=20
on the wax--rather than blot it all off. When you iron off the wax some of=20
this dye remains and gives a nice --more traditional look-- to the paper.

Take the wet paper to a place where it can dry. I like to carry the wet pape=
r=20
on a piece of newspaper, especially if it is a fragile paper that might tear=
=20
when wet. You can also just lay it flat on tables or the floor. It can take=20=
a=20
lot of drying space this way. If you have a flat drying rack, that is the=20
best way to dry this paper but drying racks are usually only found in art=20
classrooms.=20

I often use one of those wooden clothes drying racks. The dye will stain the=
=20
wood of the rack so its not useful for much of anything else and will=20
sometimes stain the next piece of paper you put on the rack. You can cover=20
the wooden bars with plastic tubing like you use in an aquarium. This plasti=
c=20
tubing can be wiped clean of most of the dye or removed completely and you=20
can use the drying rack for other things. Buy tubing as close in diameter to=
=20
the diameter of the rack dowels as you can. Cut the tubing the length of the=
=20
dowel forming the rack. Split the tubing the entire length of the tubing.=20
Slip the tubing over the length of the rack dowel.=20

As you proceed with the Batik process you add more and more wax to the paper=
.=20
This makes the paper heavy. Hanging the paper to dry can present you with a=20
big problem--the wax is so heavy that the paper tears around the edges of th=
e=20
wax when it is wet with dye and hanging. A combination of hanging the paper=20
to dry on the first two dye colors and laying it flat on the last two wax an=
d=20
dying steps seems to work best. Hanging lets the dye dry much faster in the=20
first few dying steps but laying it flat keeps the paper from ripping on the=
=20
later, especially the last, dying steps.

A gentle fan can help speed the drying but no hair dryers--heat will melt th=
e=20
wax. The dye must be DRY before you can move on to the next step.

Second Wax

Once the dye is dry, you can add more wax. Put wax over any area you want to=
=20
remain the first dye color you applied to the paper. For example, if that=20
color was yellow, any areas you now coat with wax will be yellow in the fina=
l=20
product.

Second Color

Once you finish applying wax, paint on a second color. It should be darker=20
than the first color. Remember that there will be a blending of the two=20
colors and you will not get exactly the color of the dye you apply.

Continue applying wax, than dye of a darker color, and more wax until your=20
design is finished. Traditionally, you should end with black but any dark=20
color will work. With paper I usually do not apply more than four colors.

Removing The Wax

Once the last dye is dry, you can remove the wax.  There are two looks you=20
can achieve with this.--an overall wax tone or a halo look.  The halo look=20
results when there are areas of the paper that are not covered with wax say=20=
a=20
wax line with a lot of open paper around it. If I iron the Batik paper the=20
wax spread a little but not enough to cover all the paper. The wax darkens=20
the color. So when the wax does not spread all over the paper you get halos=20
of color around the waxed areas. This can be part of your design.

If you do not want the halo effect but want an even tone of colors all over=20
the paper either make sure the wax spreads all over the paper as you iron it=
=20
or cover all areas of the paper with wax and then iron. =20

You place your batik paper between a few sheets of newsprint and iron with a=
=20
hot iron--wool setting usually works. You want to melt the wax but not start=
=20
a fire. NO smoking wax--your iron is too hot. You must repeat the ironing=20
between sheets of newspaper several times until very little wax appears on=20
the newsprint. I like to do the last ironing with unprinted newsprint.

I sometimes save the newsprint, especially from the first ironing, and use i=
t=20
again for my first ironing. It has a lot of wax in it and helps to make sure=
=20
the whole sheet of paper gets wax over it (can you tell I don=E2=80=99t like=
 halos).

Your batik paper is finished.


Basic Batik with Wooden Stamps

Everything is pretty much the same when you use wooden blocks to apply the=20
wax--wax, dye, dry, wax, dye, dry, etc. There is a trick to using the wooden=
=20
printing blocks. You should print on a thick pad of newsprint--you need that=
=20
little give to get a good impression. Also I use the stamp in the following=20
way--I place it in a cookie tray of wax for a few minutes, letting it warm u=
p=20
and absorb some wax. When I remove it from the cookie tray, I stamp in on=20
some scrap newspaper first before I stamp my good paper thus removing some o=
f=20
the wax. Then I stamp about three or four times before returning the stamp t=
o=20
the wax. The first time I stamp I touch it to the paper and lift immediately=
,=20
the second time I stamp I count to 2 before I lift, the third time I stamp I=
=20
count to 3 before I lift. My theory is that the wax is stored on the side of=
=20
the stamp image and flows down the sides to the paper. At first there is a=20
lot of wax and so you stamp quickly or the image will not be clear--too much=
=20
wax.  As you continue to stamp, there is less wax on the stamp and so you=20
have to leave it touching the paper a little longer to that the wax can flow=
=20
to the paper.  Whatever, it works for me.

I stamp pretty early in the dying process--either with white paper or after=20
the first color. Then I come back with the tjanting tools or brush and wax=20
parts of the stamp as I continue to dye. You can even do some spot dying of=20
the stamps--make that yellow center in the flower or orange dots on the fish=
.=20
Use a brush to apply the dye and wax over it when the dye is dry. Then=20
proceed with you light to dark dyeing.

Remove wax in the same way.


Oil Stick And Cray-Pas Batik=20

This material, an oil stick or cray-pas can be a fun but simple way to get a=
=20
batik look. Both these materials can be purchased in art stores. They come i=
n=20
a lot of colors and the oil stick comes in a clear version--no color-- and=20
looks more like wax. These materials are used by artists to do drawings and=20
painting. You can do batik with them. Simply draw your design with either of=
=20
these materials or a combination. The cray-pas tend to be smaller and create=
=20
a finer line.=20

Once the design is on the paper, iron the paper between some scrap paper.=20
This is important as it melts the material into the paper so that it acts=20
like a resist. Then brush a dark color dye, black, navy blue, etc., on the=20
paper and let it dry. You can iron it again when the dye is dry to help=20
flatten the paper. It looks mush like batik especially if you do not wipe=20
away all the excess dye on top of the oil stick or cray-pas line. Only one=20
dye is needed as the colors come from the oil stick.

Modern picture batik with wax or oil stick

There are several batik papers on the market now that have a design outlined=
=20
in wax and colored in with dyes but the whole sheet of paper is not dyed. =20
This is very easy to do either with drawing the design with the tjanting=20
tool, stamping with a wooden block, or using an oil stick to draw the design=
.=20
 Just fill in the design with dye on a brush and iron to remove excess wax o=
r=20
set the oil stick. When using wax you usually get a halo look with wax aroun=
d=20
your image.

Discharge Dying

Discharge dying is just bleaching. You work backwards. Use a dark paper and=20
place a wax pattern on it. Place the paper in a clorox bath until some of th=
e=20
color is removed.  You can wax the paper again and put it back into clorox=20
water to get a third color. BUT clorox is VERY hard on paper and too much=20
time in the clorox water could result in the paper disintegrating.

To do this procedure mix up a clorox solution of 1 part bleach to 5 parts=20
water or even as much as 10 parts water for a weaker solution. Use plastic=20
trays for this not metal. I use plastic storage boxes or photographic=20
chemical trays.=20

After applying wax to the paper, place the paper in the tray of clorox water=
.=20
Watch until as much of the color is removed as you want.Don=E2=80=99t leave=20=
the paper=20
in the water for hours; this should work in 15 minutes or less. If not, you=20
may need a stronger clorox solution. You can go as high as 1 part clorox to=20=
3=20
parts water.

Remove the paper from the clorox water and place it in a tray of clear water=
=20
to rinse it.

Then you should neutralize the clorox by placing the paper in a vinegar=20
solution. In another plastic tray, mix a solution of 3 parts vinegar and 1=20
part water. Dip the paper in this solution. Then rinse the paper again in=20
water--not the same rinse water you used after the clorox water because it=20
has a little clorox in it that you rinsed out of the paper..

Now vinegar is an acid and acids are bad for paper. You might want to=20
neutralize that acid by dipping the paper in one more solution--soda ask (wa=
s
hing soda) in water. Add two - three tablespoons of soda ash to a gallon of=20
water and place it in another plastic tray. Dip the paper in this. Rinse it=20
again in clear water and let it dry.

Once it is dry you can add more wax and repeat the process or stop and iron=20
out the wax. If you do this, you will probably get halos because there is no=
t=20
much wax on the paper. You can put wax all over the paper before you iron it=
=20
if you don't want halos.

I don=E2=80=99t recommend this for any serious art work that you intend to l=
ast. The=20
clorox never goes away and the paper continues to slowly disintegrate over=20
the years.


Paste resist with stencils

This technique uses paste as the resist rather than wax. Paste works well on=
=20
fabric as it penetrates the fabric. You have a harder time on paper. If you=20
use a hard surface paper where the dye does not penetrate, this technique=20
works better. Thinner absorbent papers do not always let the paste penetrate=
=20
the paper but always do let the dye penetrate. The dye can seep under the=20
paste. Almost any paste recipe works. Keep it simple. I use just either=20
instant wheat paste or the cooking kind. A good proportion to start with is=20
tablespoon of wheat paste to one cup of water. You want a paste that can be=20
applied with a spatula through a stencil. It can't be too runny or it will=20
seep under the stencil. If its too thick you can't spread it smoothly. Adjus=
t=20
your recipe to the right consistency.

You will also need some stencils. They can be the plastic purchased kind or=20
ones you cut yourself. They need to be of a material that can stand up to=20
being wet. Don=E2=80=99t choose a pattern with a lot of little details. Simp=
le=20
patterns with large areas work best.

Lay the stencil on you paper and apply the paste with a spatula like you wer=
e=20
spreading butter on bread. You want a thin even layer of paste. Remove the=20
stencil, wipe it off and place on the paper again--if you are doing a repeat=
=20
pattern. Apply paste again. Keep doing this until you have the pattern you=20
want.

Let the paste dry completely.

Apply dye with a brush. Let the dye dry.  You can apply more paste, just lik=
e=20
wax, over the dye and do another color. Paste is sometimes put into an icing=
=20
tube and squeezed on the paper to make lines and dots.

When all the dye is dry you can remove the paste and reveal the paper or=20
colors underneath. To do this place the paper in a tray of clean water. This=
=20
softens the wheat paste. Gentle swishing helps remove the paste from the=20
paper.  You have to be careful that not a lot of dye comes off into the=20
water. This =E2=80=9Ccolored water=E2=80=9D could dye your paper where the p=
aste is coming=20
off. Change the water if it is getting very colored.=20

Gutta and Other Synthetic Resists

I have experimented with these newer products but without much success. The=20
resists do not penetrate heavier papers and this allows the dyes to seep=20
under the resist. The metallic colored resists are even worse--they don=E2=
=80=99t=20
penetrate even thin papers. Some of the synthetics are also water soluble an=
d=20
loosen up if you paint dye all over the surface. I have had some success=20
doing silk painting techniques on Sumi Practice paper. More experimentation=20
is needed on my part--and yours, if you are interested in these materials.

Another new method recently developed is to use embossing powder. This comes=
=20
from the rubber stamp world. Stamp paper with a rubber stamp design using=20
clear embossing fluid stamp pad. Apply embossing powder to the stamp and fus=
e=20
with your heat gun. Apply dilute color with a spritzer. Let dry. Place a=20
scrap paper over the paper and iron melting the embossing powder which is=20
absorbed by the scrap paper. Iron until all the embossing powder is gone. Do=
=20
not reuse the scrap paper as the embossing powder it absorbed would be=20
re-applied to any surface you iron it to.  Haven=E2=80=99t tried it myself y=
et but it=20
sound interesting.



=C2=A9 1999 Green Heron Book Arts

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