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Re: [BKARTS] bookboard showng through pale bookcloth

In a message dated 1/6/2003 8:25:41 AM Pacific Standard Time,
kingmanartmail@xxxxxxxxx writes:

> <A HREF="mailto:kingmanartmail@xxxxxxxxx";>kingmanartmail@xxxxxxxxx</A>

Ann...what adhesive to use seems to be a huge bugaboo for most people.It was
for me until I learned that you choose an adhesive for the specific
properties it has, and the properties you want for a given situation. There
are basically 3 or 4 kinds of adhesives and each one has specific properties.
 As you become more experienced, you'll be able to decide for yourself what
to use. So, examining the properties....
They all do a good job of sticking things to things.
 1. PVA and other plastic adhesives
     They have less water in them.  Therefore they dry faster.  Therefore
they stick things together faster and sometimes you want a little time to
slide things around so they WON"T stick too fast. Because of the fast
sticking time of PVA, you don't want to use it when you are adhering a large
area of stuff that may need to get slid or adjusted a bit. The time that an
adhesive can still be jiggled around is called the "open time." But, you can
modify the PVA (and it's "open time" ) by adding something to add the
properties you want(I.e. more open time)....In this case,I'd add methyl
cellulose.  How much? Maybe half and half. or les methyl cel and more PVA,
like 3 to 1.

 2. Methyl cel by itself doesn't have quite the strength that other adhesives
have. It comes in a powder and you mix it with a little water until irt's
sort of runny like egg whites. The powder keeps forever . I always have a
little yogurt size container with methyl cel made up.  Keep the top on.

3.  "Paste" not glue.  When binders refer to paste they generally mean
something in the wheat type. Now when we were kids we made flour and water
paste. It sticks but it's lumpy and the grains of the flour are
large(compared to some other possibilities) so it's not very satisfactory.
Rice flour is finer grained than wheat flour so it makes a finer paste.
Thproduct preferred by most experienced binders is "wheat starch." Since it's
the starch that holds things together, this is the best . It is also called
"jin shofu" , theJapanese product.  Available through book binding catalogues
like Talas. Despite many people having their own special way of making the
paste(it comes in powder), you basically make it like you would a sauce to
eat.  No lumps and smooth. Write if you need more specific directions...
Since paste has a lot of water in it, it dries slowly , tends to ripple paper
as water would. But it's the choice for leather and certain paper tasks. If
you want a thick consistancy, use less water when you make it. More water if
you want it thin. But be aware. It spoils quickly, smells bad and gets black
mold on it. Will keep a feww days in refrig. Most binders make it new every 2
or 3 days, or daily. You can make half PVA and half paste and get a very good

4. The animal glues. Fish glue and rabbits' foot glue. You don't need this
until you have quite a bit of experience.

So there you have a basic course.  I hope it wasn't stuff you already knew!
You can also use 2 different adhesives on the same task...if it suits your

I don't know what other responses you will get...but these are mine for what
it's worth. I just loved it when I learned these things so I could make my
own decisions on the spot what to use. HAve choices available.  I have my
little containers of yogurt on my bench at all times and use what is
appropriate.  Oh yes, the paste will keep better if you put a few drops of
alcohol in the container to help stop the mold.  I use 3 or 4 drops(I mean
"drops") of oil of cloves or oil of eucalyptus or lemon oil. The kind you get
at a fragrance store or a bath shop.

Hope this helps.

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