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[BKARTS] More recent adhesive research

For more recent related adhesive research regarding PVA's and various other adhesives, I quote from the CCI website 
http://www.cci-icc.gc.ca and the Abbey Newsletter http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/byorg/abbey/an/an16/an16-7/an16-712.html: 

Canadian Conservation Institute:
For the past 20 years, research has been going on at CCI to study the properties of various adhesives in order to assist conservators in selecting the most suitable and stable product for their needs. Epoxy resin, poly(vinyl acetate), acrylic, and vinyl acetate/ethylene (VAE) copolymer adhesives have been studied in some detail, and changes have been monitored under natural dark and fluorescent light ageing. Jane Down is the Senior Conservation Scientist, Conservation Processes and Materials Research Division. 

Abbey Newsletter Literature Review, Volume 16, Number 7-8, Dec 1992:
Adhesive Testing at the Canadian Conservation Institute-An Evaluation of Selected Poly(vinyl acetate) and Acrylic Adhesives, by Jane L. Down, Maureen A. MacDonald, Jean Tetreault and R. Scott Williams. (Environment and Deterioration Report No. 1603) Canadian Conservation Institute, Ottawa, 1992. 30 pp. + 22 tables. 

The permanence of adhesives is of central importance for conservation and preservation, but the normal method of testing for permanence by oven aging is inappropriate for most adhesives, since high temperatures cause them to melt or change in other ways not correlated with natural aging. Until the CCI began this project eight years ago, no organization was willing to bite the bullet and start doing natural aging. CCI has been aging the more significant PVA (which they refer to as PVAC) and acrylic adhesives at room temperature, in the dark and under fluorescent lamps, in the form of emulsions and films. This report describes the changes in pH, volatile emissions, embrittlement and yellowing, and contains a vast amount of valuable data. Several adhesives were identified that are suitable for conservation applications, though one should bear in mind that the manuacturers may discontinue or change the formulation of any adhesive at any time without notification, and in fact already have done so with at least two of the eight PVAs identified as suitable. Those eight suitable PVAs were: Jade No. 403, Mowilith DMC2, R2258, Beva 371, Rabin's Mixture, Elvace No. 1874, Weldbond, and Promacto A1023. "

This research was also published in Studies in Conservation, as "Adhesive Testing at the Canadian Conservation Institute: An Evaluation of Selected Poly(Vinyl Acetate) and Acrylic Adhesives" Jane L. Down, Maureen A. MacDonald, Jean Tetreault, R. Scott Williams
Studies in Conservation, Vol. 41, No. 1 (1996) , pp. 19-44
Abstract available at : http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0039-3630(1996)41%3A1%3C19%3AATATCC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-9

After the initial study, 1988-1992, CCI continued this research, which culminated in this recent publication:
ISBN: ISBN 1-873132-16-6
Technical Report - Towards a Better Emulsion Adhesive for Conservation -- A Preliminary Report on the Effect of Modifiers on the Stability of a Vinyl Acetate/Ethylene (VAE) Copolymer Emulsion Adhesive  by Jane Down

"Adhesives are one of the most important materials used by conservators. Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAC) emulsion adhesives possess the strength and handling properties needed for many treatments, and are widely used in conservation. However, on aging most become acidic and brittle. Therefore an improved PVAC adhesive formulation more suitable for conservation use has been sought. Earlier work showed that vinyl acetate/ethylene (VAE) copolymer emulsions were more suitable as a base, and after 5 years of study an initial evaluation of the physical/chemical effects of various common modifiers has been completed. Unfortunately most modifiers were found to reduce the stability of the base resin. In the future, as new understanding of modifiers that have minimal impact is developed, recommendations can be made for a suitable conservation formulation. "

More specific to EVA's rather than PVA's, details of another recent research project appeared on line in the UKIC Conservation News, May 2005, at:
http://www.ukic.org.uk/members/cn/cn96_full.pdf    Testing Adhesive emulsions, see pages 25 -28

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