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Subject: Paper degradation terminology

Paper degradation terminology

From: Judith Murphy <jamurphy>
Date: Sunday, August 5, 2007
A patron wanted a list of terms for degradation of paper, and this
is what I came up with.  Any comments, additions, or corrections?

Descriptive Terms for Paper Degradation and Damage

    Abrasion
        worn away by friction, scraped or scuffed

    Accretion
        substances accumulated on the surface

    Aging
        natural or chemically assisted changing with time, oxidating

    Breakage
        disruption of surface by force or as result of age and
        fragility

    Cockled
        wrinkled or puckered, usually as a result of high humidity
        or water damage

    Corrosion
        gradual destruction by chemical action

    Crease
        bent or folded over and pressed or crushed

    Delamination
        separation into thin layers, peeling away

    Dirty
        marked by or covered in dirt or pollution

    Discoloration
        change in the original or desired color: fading, darkening,
        yellowing

    Distortion
        bending, twisting, stretching, or forcing out of normal
        shape

    Dusty
        covered with or containing dust

    Embrittlement
        becoming brittle or fragile, usually as a result of aging or
        oxidation

    Fading
        losing color or brightness gradually

    Fold
        bend or crease with resulting damage to the fibers

    Foxing
        random reddish or brown staining of fibers, perhaps due to
        mineral deposits from water used in manufacture or organisms
        which feed on those minerals

    Insect damage
        losses, accretions, flakes, or stains due to activity of
        insects

    Losses
        also called lacunae: holes or missing edges

    Mat burn
        discoloration of edges that have been in contact with acidic
        mats

    Mold
        fungus that causes organic matter to decay

    Pulpy
        soft or spongy condition due to manufacturing process and/or
        aging

    Puncture
        hole produced by sharp object such as a staple or pin

    Scorched
        discoloration of the surface caused by heat

    Soiled
        covered by material which may become embedded in the fibers

    Splitting
        separating along a fold, or delaminating

    Staining
        chemical discoloration of fibers, can be result of foxing,
        adhesive residue, tape, mold, or mat burn

    Tear
        ripped or pulled apart, usually with stretched, ragged edges

    Tideline
        stain from the accumulation of chemicals at the edge of a
        liquid spot

    Warp
        a twist or distortion out of shape

Judith Murphy
505-277-4416
Center for Southwest Research


                                  ***
                  Conservation DistList Instance 21:19
                 Distributed: Wednesday, August 8, 2007
                       Message Id: cdl-21-19-011
                                  ***
Received on Sunday, 5 August, 2007

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