The Abbey Newsletter

Volume 15, Number 6
Oct 1991

Permanent Papers on the Market

by Ellen McCrady

The papers listed in Table 1 are those named by the 23 paper companies that returned the Abbey Publications questionnaire on permanent papers by August 15, 1991. The list is probably not comprehensive. Twelve of the companies that did not reply are Cross Pointe, Eastern, E.B. Eddy, Finch Pruyn, Parsons, Patriot, Potsdam, Riverside Simpson Pasadena, Warren, Byron Weston, and George Whiting. These are all 100% alkaline companies, or close to it.

We have made an effort to clarify any ambiguous questionnaire responses by making follow-up calls to the companies, with limited success. Some mills specified just which ASTM standards each of their listed papers met (e.g., D-3290), while others simply wrote "ASTM." We are responsible for some imprecision too, because we did not insist that respondents list only papers that corresponded exactly to the type covered by a standard. A strict interpretation would have meant omission of many papers that are indeed long-lived, because many fine papers produced today are not covered by any kind of permanence standard.

For more information on just what kind of printing ("ptg") or office ("ofc") papers these are, see Walden's Paper Catalog or one of the directories published by Grade Finders, Inc. Most printers and distributors have copies of these directories; ask them to let you use their copy.

Papers with recycled content have an R following their name. Content varies from 5% to 100% and may be preconsumer or postconsumer waste or both. Now that all 50 states have laws requiring the use of recycled paper for certain purposes, a purchaser may have to specify recycled content as well as permanence.

Summaries of the specifications for the ANSI and ASTM standards are given in Tables 2 and 3. The row for tear resistance specs gives three different measures for resistance to tearing: g (gram, really a measure of weight that often does double duty as a measure of force), gf (gram force, which is the same as the grain under standard gravity conditions on earth) and N (newton, a unit of force which has come into wider use recently; one mN or millinewton=9.81 gf). In future standards, we can expect to see this confusion cleared up. We will also see more frequent use of measures in the form of indexes, which will take into account the thickness of the paper and thus allow the use of one measure for all papers covered.

Complete standards are available from ASTM, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA 19103 (215/299-5400) and (for ANSI Z39.48) from Transaction Publishers, Dept. NISO Standards, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (201/932-2280).

Table 1. Permanent Papers, Standards Met, and Main Use

Paper Grade Standard Main Use
Carbonless Papers:
All Recover Products (R) D-3290 Ofc
AU Superior CB & CFB Products D-3290 Ofc
All Sprint Freesheet CB & CFB Products D-3290 Ofc
The following white CB Products: 10.2#, 15#, 17.5#, 20#, 26#, 30# D-3290 Ofc
Boise Cascade
All Forms Bond D-3290 Ofc
AU Offset D-3290 Ptg
All Xerographic D-3458 Ofc
AU Envelope D-3290 Ofc
All Tablet D-3290 Ofc
All Ledger D-3290 Ofc
All Tagboard D-3290 Ofc
All Label D-3290 Ptg
All Advanced Technology Papers D-3290 ptg
Champion International
Carnival Text & Cover1 ANSI Ptg
Pageantry Text & Cover ANSI ptg
Mystique Laid Wrtg, Txt & Cvr ANSI Ofc, Ptg
Benefit Writing, Text & Cover (R) ANSI Ofc, Ptg
Weston Xerographic (R) ALL Ofc
Waylite (R) ANSI Ptg
Nyalite (R) ANSI Ptg
Montague Writing D3290 - II Ofc
Collateral D3290 -I Ofc
Notary Bond D3290 -I Ofc
Green River Bond D3290 - II Ofc
Recorder Bond D3290 - II Ofc
Reissue Bond (R) D3290 - II Ofc
Founder's Opake (27# to 60#) ANSI Ptg
Alpenopake (30#) ANSI Ptg
Flecopake (28# to 60#)
(lighter versions of Flecopake are still made acid)
ANSI ptg
Geopake (R) ANSI Ptg
Glatfelter Offset ANSI Ptg
Glatfelter Hi-Brite Offset ANSI Ptg
Supple Offset ANSI Ptg
Supple Opaque Offset ANSI Ptg
Supple Hi-Brite Offset ANSI Ptg
Writers Offset ANSI Ptg
Mi-Web ANSI Ptg
B.P. Litho ANSI Ptg
Spring Forge Offset ANSI Ptg
Thor Offset ANSI Ptg
Thor Cote II (R) ANSI Ptg
Restore Cote (R) ANSI Ptg
Reference Opaque 84 (R) ANSI Ptg
Reference Opaque 81 (R) ANSI Ptg
Stabilite (R) ANSI Ptg
Hammermill Savings DP (R) ANSI Ofc
Hammermill Bond ANSI Ofc
Hammermill Fore DP ANSI Ofc
Hammermill Tidal DP ANSI Ofc
Hammermill Xero-Lasercopy ANSI Ofc
Hammermill Offset Opaque ANSI Ptg
Hammermill Accent Opaque ANSI Ptg
Hammermill South Shore Offset ANSI Ptg
Hammermill Hy*o*lite ANSI Ptg
Hammermill Copy Plus ANSI Ofc
Hammermill Laser Print ANSI Ofc
Hammermill Copier SV4 ANSI Ofc
Discovery Opaque ANSI Ptg
Saving Offset (R) ANSI Ptg
Saving Opaque (R) ANSI Ptg
Harborlite ANSI Ptg
51# Harmony (R) ANSI Ofc
61# Papeterie (R) ANSI Ptg
70# Mead Offset Opaque (R) ANSI Ptg
80# Mead Offset Opaque (R) ANSI Ptg
70# Moistrite Matte (R) ANSI Ptg
Alkaline File Folder D-3301 - I Ofc
Mohawk Vellum4 ANSI/ASTM7 Ptg
Mohawk Superfine ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Poseidon Perfect White ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Navajo Cover ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Ultrafelt4 ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Artemis4 ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Irish Linen4 ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Nuance ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Ticonderoga ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Mohawk Satin4 ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Mohawk Copytext ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Mohawk P/C (whites) (R) ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Mohawk P/C (colors) 4 (R) ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Mohawk P/C 100 (R) ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Papyrus Newton Falls
Champlain Gloss ANSI Ptg
MultiArt Gloss & Silk ANSI Ptg
St. Lawrence Gloss (R) ANSI Ptg
Marcy Plus ANSI Ptg
Marcy Matte ANSI Ptg
Stora Matte (R) ANSI Ptg
G-Print Matte ANSI Ptg
St. Lawrence Coated-one-side ANSI Ptg
Whitemost CIS Beer Label ANSI Ptg
Cream White Stora Matte (R) ANSI Ptg
Penn Text (R) ANSI Ptg
Clarion Book (R) ANSI Ptg
Pennbook (R) ANSI Ptg
Highland Book (R) ANSI Ptg
Penn Plus (R) ANSI Ptg
Penn Supreme (R) ANSI Ptg
Clearfield Opaque (R) ANSI Ptg
Simpson Hy-Opaque ANSI/ASTM5 Ptg
Protocol 100 ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Warm White Teton ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Starwhite Vicksburg Archiva ANSI Ptg
Archival Bond ANSI/ASTM Ofc
Simpson Plainwell
Satin Kote (R) ANSI Ofc
Simpson Opaque ANSI Ofc
Simpson Recycled Offset (R) ANSI Ofc
Union Camp7
Ward Brite-Hue (std clrs only) (R) ANSI Ptg Ward Forward Vellum Opaque (R) ANSI Ptg
Ward Lake Shore 25 (R) ANSI Ofc
Ward Cimarron (R) ANSI Ofc
American Eagle Envelope Wove (R) ANSI Ptg
American Eagle Hi-D PC (R) ANSI Ptg
Clear Spring- Offset Vellum ANSI Ptg
Clear Spring Envelope Wove ANSI Ptg
Husky Opaque ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Lynx Opaque ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Cougar Opaque ANSI/ASTM Ptg
Jaguar Opaque ANSI/ASTM Ptg
ALL Forms Bond (R) ANSI/D-3290 Ptg
All Xerographic (R) ANSI/D-3458 Ptg
All Tablet (R) ANSI Ofc
All Offset (R) ANSI Ptg


1. Champion International. The four deep shade Carnival Cover grades will remain acid sized until late in 1991.

2. Consolidated & Potlatch both make alkaline coated papers, for which there is no permanence standard at present.

3. Crane. A note on the 1990 survey says they have the capability to manufacture all bonds, ledgers, indexes and Save-A-Source recycled paper to meet the ASTM, ANSI, or other specifications as requested by customers.

4. Mohawk. Except midnight blue, navy blue, autumn red, berry, charcoal, forest green, cordovan, plum and ash gray.

5. All papers listed for Mohawk meet the specs in ASTM D-3290 (bond and ledger papers) and ASTM D-3458 (copy papers).

6. Papyrus Newton Falls. "Recycled fiber used on a special making basis."

7. Union Camp replied (in 1990), "At the present time all of our papers are manufactured to a level less than 7.0. Several trials have been conducted on alkaline sized paper and Union Camp's Fine Paper Division is presently making plans for a conversion to alkaline sizing in 1991."

Table 2. ASTM Standards for Permanent Records Papers: Specifications for Maximum Permanence (Type I), Ordinary Use

  D 3208-86
Manifold Papers
D 3290-86
Bond & Ledger Papers
D 3301-85
File Folders
D 3458-85
Copies from Office Copy Machines
pH 7.5 - 9.5 7.5 - 9.5 7.5 - 9.5 7.5 - 9.5
Alkaline reserve 2% 2% 2% 2%
Fiber New cotton or linen pulp, fully bleached wood, cotton or flax pulp or a mixture. No unbleached wood pulp or groundwood Cotton or linen pulp, fully bleached wood pulp or a mixture. No unbleached pulp or groundwood New cotton or linen pulp, bleached or unbleached wood pulp, rope, jute or mixture. No groundwood Fully bleached Wood, cotton or flax or a mixture. No unbleached wood pulp or groundwood
Fold endurance     300, average both directions  
Tear resistance 18 gf (177 mN) each direction 22-60 g for 13-24 lb. Bond; 60- 1 00 g for 24-36 lb. ledger 180 - 500 g for 8-14 mil Stock 30 gf

Table 3. ANSI Standard (Z39.48-1984) for Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials

pH - 7.5 min
Alkaline reserve - 2% calcium carbonate, min.
Fiber (paper stock) - No groundwood or unbleached pulp
Fold endurance - 30 double folds, average both directions
Tear resistance - 24-50 g for 30-60 lb. paper, MD, min.

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