The Abbey Newsletter

Volume 19, Number 5
Nov 1995


Literature

[Note: The classification number that follows each entry helps place like material together in this column, and is an aid to indexing by subject in the yearly index.]

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"Book Deterioration and Loss: Magnitude and Characteristics in Ohio Libraries," by Edward T. O'Neill and Wesley L. Boomgaarden. LRTS 39/4, Oct. 1995, p. 394-408. The condition of books held by 96 academic and nonacademic Ohio libraries was examined by means of a sample survey of almost 2,000 books. All were published between 1851 and 1939. Only 22% were found to be in good condition.

In Phase 2, a search was made for sound copies of all the titles that were found in Phase 1 to be at risk of loss. It was estimated that about 50,000 titles (not volumes) from this period were unusable, most of which were lost or missing.

Some of the conclusions are:

  1. Loss is a much more severe problem than either damage or deterioration.
  2. The titles at greatest risk are those held by only by a small number of libraries, and books held only by Ohio libraries.
  3. Microfilming has made a difference: 39% of the titles that otherwise would be at risk, lost, damaged or deteriorated had been filmed. However, national preservation filming policies and practices need to be reexamined. The collection-based approach may need to be modified if unique or scarce titles are not being included in significant numbers. [See related News item, "Last Copy Policy."] (1A2)

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"Preservation Summit: Partners in Preservation. Summary Notes." Ten-page report of a meeting held at the Library of Congress on March 14, 1994; posted on the Internet by April 7, 1994. Available from nppo@loc.gov; or contact National Preservation Program Office, Merrily Smith, Library of Congress (LMG-07), Washington, DC 20540-4540, 202/707-1838.

This summit meeting was part of a comprehensive planning process at LC, for reviewing and redefining the mission of LC's preservation program, linking the preservation program to other LC programs, and providing a sturdy rationale for the Library's preservation activities. The 75 invited participants (all from the U.S.) included preservation administrators, preservation educators, research scientists, librarians, archivists, conservators, and private consultants from universities, national libraries, museums, regional conservation centers, and standards organizations.

Five topics were discussed in concurrent breakout sessions: 1) Education and outreach, 2) Selection for preservation, 3) Inter-institutional cooperation, 4) Research and testing, and 5) Standards and practices. Each group was given a list of questions in advance to help focus the discussion. These, and the conclusions and recommendations of each group, are presented in this document. (1G5)

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ARL Preservation Planning Task Force. Final Report. Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC, April 1994. Electronic copies are available on gopher://arl.cni.org:70/00/preserv/pptf. Paper copies are available at the ARL office: Call 202/296-2296 and ask for the information services coordinator, or send an e-mail message to Patricia@cni.org.

This report, and the task force that prepared it, are the outcome of the 1992 University of Chicago/ARL-sponsored Preservation Planning Conference, which was attended by library directors as well as collection development and preservation librarians. Task Force members were: Robert L. Street, Ross Atkinson, Diane Kresh, Patricia McClung, Jan Merrill-Oldham, Carole Moore, Carolyn Morrow, Barclay Ogden and Eugene Wiemers.

The report is the first step in shaping a new, comprehensive ARL preservation action plan that links with and builds on existing local, regional, and national preservation efforts. It has three parts. The first outlines the goals and objectives of current preservation efforts of key national organizations, and the second identifies preservation needs that are unmet by current programs. Both were completed in large part by ARL staff member Jutta Reed-Scott and Task Force members Jan Merrill-Oldham and Carolyn Morrow. The third part is an action plan based on discussions at the 1992 meeting.

The issues, and the unmet needs related to them (Part 2), include:

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"NonProfit Conference Planners: Would You Exhibit at Your Conference?" by editor Marilyn Miller, based on the ideas [publications?] of Steve Miller. 501(c)(3) Monthly Letter, v. 15, #5, p. 6-7. Steve Miller is a consultant, and his business is called The Adventure of Trade Shows (33422 - 30th Ave. SW, Federal Way, WA 98023; 206/874-9665, fax 874-9666).

In his experience, exhibitors at nonprofit conferences know that they are "footing the bill" for a healthy percentage of conference expenses but they may feel that they are "getting the boot" in return. Over the years, exhibitor fees have risen dramatically. Exhibitors may continue to attend, but this may not generate sales or identify new prospects, because exhibitors don't know how to plan for their own maximum benefit. But the conference planners can help them, and make sure they keep on coming, by following six steps. Briefly, they are

  1. Give them the information they will need in order to succeed; have a serious education program for them.
  2. Invest in your newest exhibitors; make sure their first year is successful.
  3. Personally visit the top 20% of your exhibitor base.
  4. Re-educate your Exhibit Committee members.
  5. Develop a close relationship with the exhibiting company's sales and marketing decision-makers; those manning the booth may have little authority.
  6. Tell the truth. Exhibitors want to know how many potential buyers were there at the conference. (1G8)

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Recent Setbacks in Conservation, Vol. 5, 1995. $10.00 + $2.50 postage to the U.S.; discounts for multi-volume orders. Make out check to IIC-CG and send it to IIC-CG, PO Box 9195, Ottawa, Ont., K1G 3T9, Canada.

This is probably the longest-running satirical publication in the field of conservation: it is celebrating its 10th anniversary, which it reached by counting in the odd years when a volume is not published. Most of the writers use pseudonyms, one of which is Onef Atenglishman (get it?). Most of the other pseudonyms are odd, too. The articles are insiders' spoofs of museum conservation. (1H5)

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Directory of Operating Grants, 2nd edition. $58.50 + $6.00 from Research Grant Guides, Inc., PO Box 1214, Loxahatchee, FL 33470 (or fax 407/795-7794 and ask for an order form). Operating grants are not restricted to a specified project or set of activities. They can support general ongoing operating expenses connected with an organization's usual activities. This directory identifies 670 foundations that make them, and provides information about the grant range, geographic restrictions if any, and organizations funded. It includes an article on how to use the budget as a planning tool for operating grants. (1M)

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Advances in Preservation and Access, Vol. 2, edited by Barbra Buckner Higginbotham. Published by Learned Information, 1995. (The announcement gives no address for the publisher.) 438 pages. $49.50 postpaid. The table of contents lists 25 chapters, of which some are:

Don't Swat the Skunk: The Preservation Imperative - David B. Gracy II

Library Air Pollution: Sampling and Mitigation - Randy H. Silverman, Constance K. Lundberg, and Delbert J. Eatough

Mass Deacidification of Archives and Manuscript Collections - Kristi L.R. Kiesling and James Grant Stroud

Inventing the Future of Preservation Microfilming - C. Lee Jones

Optical Disk Applications in the Federal Government: Sharing and Preserving Unique Collections - Alan Fusonie and Richard F. Myers

The Role of the Computer in the Preservation Operation - Michael Bruer

Comprehensive Production Software (That Works!) for Preservation - Errol Somay and Marc Reeves

Application Development for the Conservation Laboratory - Walter Henry

A Collection Condition Survey Model for Public Libraries - Nancy Carlson Schrock

Observations on the Effect of Freezing and Thawing Microfilm - Sharon Gavitt

The Challenge of Film Preservation in the 1990s - Anthony Slide

Preserving Music Materials: Past and Future - Kathleen Haefliger and L. Suzanne Kellerman

Documenting Dance and Preserving the Collections - Leslie Hansen Kopp

Access Services: The Human Factor - Ann Paietta

Disasters for Directors: The Role of the Library or Archive Director in Disaster Preparedness and Recovery - Barbra Buckner Higginbotham and Miriam B. Kahn (2)

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"Difficult Choices": How Can Scholars Help Save Endangered Research Resources? A Report to the Commission on Preservation and Access, by Gerald George. Submitted 1 July 1995. 28 pages. $10 from the CPA, 1400 16th St. NW, Suite 740, Washington, DC 20036-2217 (202/939-3400, fax 939-3407).

This is a good summary and assessment of the Commission on Preservation and Access's eight-year-long effort to involve scholarly advisory committees in preservation selection. The author, Executive Director of the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC), is familiar with the issue of selection for preservation. He reviews the Commission's work with scholarly advisory committees in renaissance studies, history, philosophy, medieval studies, modern language and literature, and art history, and suggests four options for future work, of which the fourth sounds most promising: "To get scholarly associations to take leadership responsibility for preserving materials of priority importance for research in their respective fields." [Actually, the anthropologists have taken the initiative for preservation in a most competent way, without prompting; perhaps librarians should offer to help the scholarly associations, instead of the other way around. -Ed.] (2.6)

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Preserving the Anthropological Record, 2nd ed. Edited by Sydel Silverman and Nancy J. Parezo. Published by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc., 220 Fifth Ave., New York City, 10001. 1995. 254 pages, printed on alkaline paper.

This edition is twice as long as the first, which appeared only two years ago. The preface says it is an interim report on a collective work in progress, so we can expect another edition before long. The anthropologists have built such momentum and organized so much knowledge and expertize to save the records of their profession that it is hard to believe the reports that scholars are not very enthusiastic about being involved in preservation projects. They know what they have to do to if there is to be a record of their profession in the year 2050, and they describe it clearly in this volume. Little of it has to do with helping librarians choose which brittle books to microfilm.

"Preserving" in this book means primarily identifying, locating and assessing the preservation status of the (mostly scattered) manuscripts and miscellaneous records of anthropology--all work that is fundamental to more specific preservation efforts like microfilming. Selective retention, records retention policy and priorities for preservation are covered or mentioned many places in the book, notably in the chapter entitled "Saving the Past: Guidelines for Individuals," by Nancy J. Parezo and Ruth J. Person. But there is a chapter on the basics of preservation, and electronic records are covered in several places. (2.61)

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Photocopying of Library and Archive Materials. This is an 8-page "leaflet" distributed by the National Preservation Office of the British Library and sponsored by Selectacopy, a company whose ad appears on p. 8. Librarians are warned of damage from inexpert handling, especially of large or unusual books (those with 15 listed features), and the effect of light and heat for frequently copied volumes. The leaflet describes good photocopying practice, lists the features of a "book friendly" photocopier, suggests surrogates to use instead of vulnerable originals, and outlines copyright restrictions on library material. Copies are available free of charge from the National Preservation Office, The British Library, Great Russell St., London, WC1B 3DG. Tel: (44-171) 412-7612; fax: 412-7796; e-mail: npo@bl.uk. (2A2)

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IIC-CG Abstracts, Calgary, May 26-28, 1995. The scope of this 39-page book is museum conservation, but many of the papers are relevant to preservation of library and archival materials. There were 24 papers and three posters. Some of the more interesting-sounding ones are:

"Museum-Grade Materials: Do They Always Make the Exhibition Grade?" - Cecily Grzywacz. The author warns that "museum-grade" materials do not always eliminate the buildup of carbonyl pollutants (especially formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid) in display and storage microenvironments. Mitigation measures are described.

"Museum Environment Specs Revisited. Again. Oh God, Not Again," by Stefan Michalski. This paper clarifies certain issues in previous CCI publications and comments on the controversial press release (Abbey Newsletter, Aug.-Sept. 1994) from the Conservation Analytical Laboratory of the Smithsonian Institution. Michalski says that although both CAL and CCI publications on permissible RH fluctuations "have abandoned the old reductionism that lumped many RH issues under one simplistic number, 50% RH, CAL appears to reduce the fluctuation issue to one category: ± 15% RH. CCI has abandoned such pass-fail categories, despite client appeal. In our experience, the RH vulnerability of museum collections has more to do with assembly types, RH history, age, and state of repair than with the precision of material data."

"Designing Airtight Exhibit Cases," by Toby Jonathan Raphael. The U.S. National Park Service has a lot of old buildings that serve as museums, although they do not provide adequate environmental control. As a result, NPS personnel have been developing RH-stabilized exhibit cases, and over the past decade have made considerable progress with passive, tightly sealed exhibit cases made with less permeable construction materials and engineered to dramatically reduce air leakage. These represent large savings to cultural institutions.

"Museum Environmental Issues and the Design of Controlled Display and Storage Cases for Precious Documents and Museum Artifacts," by Nathan Stolow. The author reviews the present re-evaluation of RH levels for humidity-sensitive documents and other objects, and describes recent projects involving design of airtight display cases with inert atmospheres and controlled RH.

"A Video Series on Preventive Conservation" is a poster by Carole Dignard, Jacques Bussière and Laurier Lacroix. This seven-hour-long series, sponsored by three institutions, is available in French or English. Titled "Preventive Conservation in Museums," it covers condition reporting, protecting objects on exhibit, storage, handling, packing and transportation, lighting, climate control, integrated pest management, pollutants, security and fire prevention, emergency contingency planning and closing a seasonal museum, as well as eight different kinds of materials. (2C)

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Conservation Environment Guidelines for Libraries and Archives, by William P. Lull with Paul N. Banks, 1995. Canadian Council of Archives, 344 Wellington St., Room 1009, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0N3. Available in English or French for $17.50 US prepaid.

This is based on the 1990 publication of the same name prepared by the authors for New York State, with updates for recent research and findings. For ordering questions contact Ms. Lucie Paquette at 613/996-6445; for questions about the content of the publication, contact Mr. Lull at 609/259-8050. (2C1)

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"Gesundheitsvorsorge in Archiven" ("Health Precautions in Archives") is a section of the ArbeitsblŠtter des Arbeitskreises Nordrhein-WestfŠlischer Papierrestauratoren, 5. Ausgabe, 1995. It consists of three articles, reprinted from Der Archivar, Jg. 47, 1994, H. 1:

"Zur Gefährdung von Schimmelpilz-Kontamination im Umgang mit Archivgut" ("Dangers of Mold Contamination by Association with Archive Materials"), by Hanns Peter Neuheuser, p. 17-19. Two Westphalia archives and one ministry sponsored a project to do a risk analysis on the health effects of mold, since reports of severe reactions were increasing. The next two papers report the work done on this project.

"Bericht über die mikrobiologischen und allergologischen Untersuchungen von Archivalien und Archivräumen" ("Report of Microbiological and Allergy-related Investigations of Archives and Archives Rooms"), by Martin Schata, p. 19-26. Three studies are described:

  1. "Mikrobiologische Untersuchungen in Archiven und Restaurierungswerkstätten." Investigations of mold outbreaks in 1987 and 1988 revealed causes, conditions and species involved.
  2. "Restauratorische Massnahmen zur Erhaltung von Archivalien." A preventive measure is advocated: to fumigate the materials with ethylene oxide and encapsulate them in polyethylene so that they cannot become reinfected.
  3. "Allergologische Untersuchungen bei Mitarbeitern in Archiven." A survey of personnel in three different kinds of archives was made, and their medical symptoms tabulated; 20 were tested intensively and 13 of them found to have rhino-conjunctivitis, 6 atopical eczema, 7 bronchial asthma or obstructive bronchitis and 4 other disorders.

The third article is "Empfehlungen für Vorsorgemassnahmen gegen Schimmelpilz-Kontamination in Archiven," compiled by H.P. Neuheuser and M. Schata. Sixteen recommendations are given. They are followed by a table that gives temperature, pH and water activity of the substrate required for growth conditions for 21 species of mold belonging to 8 genera. (2C1.8)

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"Building for Conservation: Appropriate Design for Environmental Control in the Tropics," by Steve King. Pages 77-98 in Cultural Heritage in Asia and the Pacific: Conservation and Policy: Proceedings of a Symposium held in Honolulu, Hawaii, September 8-13, 1991, edited by Margaret MacLean. Published 1993. Discusses six topics, including one on passive environmental control strategies in hot, arid regions, and in hot, humid regions. Suggestions are offered for optimizing mechanical air conditioning and dehumidifying display cases. (Full abstract in AATA 32-194) (2C2.6)

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"Environmental Control for Cultural Institutions. Appropriate Design and the Use of Alternative Technologies," by Steve King and Colin Pearson. In book, La conservation prŽventive: Colloque sur la conservation restauration des biens culturels, Paris, 8-10 Oct. 1992 (1992), pp. 63-73. 33 refs.

Since institutions in developing countries often cannot afford the expense of top quality air conditioning systems, alternative architectural designs and technologies need to be developed to ensure the protection of collections. The Getty Conservation Institute and the University of Canberra have initiated a research program to investigate such design. (AATA Abstract 32-195) (2C2.6)

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"Archivalienverfilmung gebundener Vorlagen mit dem Gottschalk-Prismenkamerasystem: Einsatz des Prismenkamerasystems in den Caritas-Werkstätten St. Martin, Brilon," by Wolfgang Beckmann. ArbeitsblŠtter NRW-Papierrestauratoren v. 5, 1995.

This article describes the Gottschalk & Pfreimter prismatic-lens microfilm camera, which requires the book to be held open only at a 60° angle. The book sits on its spine, and is lifted hydraulically to the camera. For more information, contact Caritas-Werkstätten St. Martin, Mühlenweg 58, 59929 Brilon, Germany, fax 49-2961-9718-20. (2E1)

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Preservation Microfilming: Does it Have a Future? Proceedings of the First National Conference of the National Preservation Office, at the State Library of South Australia, 4-6 May 1994. National Library of Australia, 1995. 198pp. ISBN 0 642 10639 8. $AUD25.00 (about $US18, + postage) from Sales & Distribution, National Library of Australia, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia (fax 61 6 2731084).

Speakers included Ralph Manning from the National Library of Canada, Anne Kenney from Cornell University, and Elizabeth Ho, Colin Webb and Paul Wilson from Australian institutions. Several papers explored the relationship between microfilm and digital reformatting and confirmed that microfilm did have a future, while 16 other papers covered various aspects of microfilming: inhouse vs. contracted-out, newspapers vs. archives vs. books, production, law, standards, marketing, storage, and cataloging. (2E1)

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Digital Imaging of Papyri, by Roger Bagnall. A Report to the Commission on Preservation and Access. Sept. 1995. 8 pp. $10 from CPA.

Papyri exist in fragments scattered among more than 100 collections in the U.S. alone. Related papyri, even different fragments of the same papyrus document, may be held in separate collections. This seemed like an ideal case for a digital imaging project, so the American Society of Papyrologists and the CPAmet and set up a project for an Advanced Papyrological Information System early in 1994. They have worked out much of their operational plan since then.

The report is well and clearly written; the project seems sensibly planned. This is a complex subject, clearly presented in a meaningful context. (2E3)

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Future Libraries: Dreams, Madness, and Reality, by Walt Crawford and Michael Gorman. Chicago: American Library Association, 1995. 198 p. $25 (0-8389-0647-8).

This is reviewed in LRTS 39/4, 1995, p. 437-438, by Virginia A. Walter, who is impressed by the calm confidence with which the authors envision libraries thriving as storehouses and sources of knowledge (not information), with technology as the servant, not the usurper, of traditional functions. She still wishes they had given their readers a strategy for action.

Both authors are well known in automation circles, so their words carry some weight. They do not believe, however, in a future in which all recorded knowledge is encoded in electronic formats. They deplore the excesses of "technolust" that librarians indulge in, and advocate a more rational view. (2E4)

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Contributions of the Central Research Laboratory to the Field of Conservation and Restoration. Edited by Hugo Verschoor and Jaap Mosk. 1994. ISBN 90-72905-37-7. Dfl 50 [$32.50] from Central Research Laboratory, Gabriël Metsustraat 8, 1071 EA Amsterdam, Netherlands, (31-20) 673 51 62, fax (31-20) 675 16 61. [dfl=guilders] 124 pages, in English. (This is not the same as the Research Abstracts, 1993, announced on p. 60a, or Research Abstracts, probably for 1994, announced on p. 41 in this newsletter.)

This book presents information on projects and investigations carried out in 1992 and 1993, some of which will be summarized in a future issue:

"Research into the Cause of Browning of Papers Mounted in Mats," by J. Hofenk de Graaff

"Investigation of the Long-term Effects of Ethylene Oxide and Gamma Rays on the Ageing of Paper," by J. Hofenk de Graaff and W.G.Th. Roelofs

"Exposure of Objects of Art and Science to Light from Electronic Flashguns and Photocopiers," by J. G. Neevel

"Comparison of the Corrosive Properties of Seven Types of Plywood," by P.B. Hallebeek. (3.4)

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Gaylord Preservation Pathfinder No. 4: An Introduction to Book Repair, by Nancy Carlson Schrock, 1995. Gaylord Bros., Box 4901, Syracuse, NY 13221-4901 (800/448-6160). 14 pp.

This, like other "Pathfinders" in the series, is clear, accurate and oriented to conservation,. It is too short to present specific procedures for book repair, but it does give the basics, which a person should get before proceeding to the application anyhow. The sections are: Introduction, Defining Book Repair, Publications on Book Repair, Principles of Book Repair, Setting up a Work Space, Tools and Equipment, Supplies, and Sources of Training. Books and tools that are available from Gaylord are identified, but there is a professional rather than a commercial flavor to this booklet. (3A2)

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Garland Publishing is having a half-price sale of remaining volumes from their 19-title reprint series on The History of Bookbinding & Design. The list, prices, and instructions for ordering are on p. 8 of the October 1995 Guild of Book Workers Newsletter; or contact Audry Leung, Garland Publishing Inc., 717 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10022-8101 (212/751-7447, fax 212/308-9399). (3A5)

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"Paper Making in an Alkaline Medium," by H. Larson. Tsellyul. Bum. Karton no. 1-2, Jan.-Feb. 1995, pp. 20-23 (in Russian). (PBA Abstract 3658, 1995) Describes the elements of alkaline papermaking, and urges that the process be used in Russia. (From the Oct. 1995 Alkaline Paper Advocate) (3A9.4)

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Environmental Influences on the Deterioration of Paper, by John B.G.A. Havermans. Ph.D. dissertation, Technische Universiteit Delft, Netherlands. Published by Barjesteh, Meeuwes & Co., Jan van Loonstraat 18c, 3031 PL Rotterdam, Netherlands (fax 31.10.4139787). 1995. 213 p. ISBN 90-5613-010-2. Copyright is held by author and publisher. Price: about $35-$40.

The main sections of this printed dissertation, after the introduction, are:

It is well printed on alkaline paper, with many illustrations and appropriate halftones (including one that shows him proudly holding his young baby, on the same page as his curriculum vitae). Much attention is given to reviewing what is known of paper and how it ages, and it is clearly written, so it should be useful to serious nonspecialists.

However, its facts and terminology are not always reliable. For instance, on p. 7, the primary function of cellulose is said to be imparting high "tensile stiffness" and strength to the tree. Tensile strength and stiffness are two entirely different properties.

There are overstatements: on p. 17, for instance, it says that all paper was made in an acid medium from the mid-1800s until about 1980. In this country, and probably in Europe too, alkaline paper has been made continuously by one or more major mills at least since the early 1950s.

The real value of this wide-ranging dissertation is the way it brings together information that is not readily available elsewhere. For instance, on p. 24 there is a list of 17 research projects on the effects of air pollution on paper deterioration, with columns comparing pollutants used, concentrations and so on. There are sections describing the degradation processes of paper, a very technical analysis of the edge and middle of pages in a 1945 groundwood book from the New York Public Library, and reports of the author's experimental studies of aging with pollutants and deacidifying with diethyl zinc. (From the Oct. 1995 Alkaline Paper Advocate) (3B1)

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"On the Odour of Old Books," by G. Buchbauer, L. Jirovetz, M. Wasicky and A. Nikiforov. Journal of Pulp & Paper Science v.21 #11, Nov. 1995, p. J398-J400.

The first three authors are from the Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry in Vienna and the fourth is from the Institute of Organic Chemistry, also in Vienna. The gases given off by four old books, published 1779, 1922, 1933 and 1942, were analyzed by gas chromatographic-spectroscopic and gas chromatographic-olfactory systems to identify the compounds responsible for the characteristic dusty, musty, mouldy, paper-like and dry odor they gave off. More than 70 compounds were identified that made up the odor of the books. An equal number of compounds were given off that had no odor detectable by a professional perfumer. The compounds are listed in a table, "Volatiles of Book Samples with Odour Description (in Alphabetical Order and FID Peak Area %)." Two cyclohexanol derivatives and other compounds with long-lasting odor effects accounted for much of the complex odor of old books. The references are all from outside the paper industry: fragrance, flavor, perfume and cosmetic science. (3B1.22)

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"Introduction to Fluorescence in Fiber Recycling," by Michel Dubreuil. Progress in Paper Recycling, Aug. 1995, p. 98-109.

This plainly written overview is "aimed at both newcomers and experienced recyclers." It includes both general background and short reports of relevant experiments. Fluorescence can originate naturally in the fibers themselves; in artificial fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs); and in paper additives. They need to be controlled in recycled fiber, because they can affect color of the paper as well as brightness. For this, it is important to understand the nature of the FWAs (both natural and artificial) and the way they attach to the fiber.

The article discusses measurement, light sources and instrumentation, the effects of different bleaches, additives that increase or quench the FWAs, current developments and concerns, and future research needed. There is a 50-item bibliography. (From the Oct. 1995 Alkaline Paper Advocate) (3B1.8)

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"Tapas in Völkerkundemuseen: Wie wird Rindenstoff gewonnen, wie ist ihm restauratorisch zu begegnen?--eine LiteraturÜbersicht" ("Tapa in Ethnological Museums--How was the Bark Fiber Obtained, and How does the Conservator Approach It? A Literature Survey"), by Gerry Barton and Sabine Weik. Restauro 3/95 (May-June), p. 188-195. A survey of the manufacture, use and conservation of the different kinds of tapa. Inappropriate treatments and problems associated with washing tapa, and the counter-productive idea of reintroducing flexibility into old tapa, are noted. Numerous illustrations show manufacture, use and appearance of tapa. (3B2.11)

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