The Alkaline Paper Advocate

Volume 2, Number 2
Jul 1989


Literature

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For those in need of information regarding the grades of paper that are alkaline, and also who makes them, the 1989/90 Fine Paper Directory has it. Any paper that has a minimum pH of 7.5, and is Manufactured from fully bleached pulp that has no groundwood content, is identified with ** in the listing. The price for this 552-page directory is $80. It will be available early in August from Grade Finders Inc., P.O. Box 944, Exton, PA 19341 (215/524-7070).

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"Old Concepts have new Meaning with On-site PCC Facilities," by William C. Schultz. Amer. Papermaker, May 1989, p. 3536. How Finch Pruyn got its own PCC plant in 1984, two years after converting to alkaline. The author says the Glens Falls operation was the first pulp and paper mill to erect a modern, computer-controlled, on-site PCC plant in North America. (However, Ecusta had been operating an onsite PCC plant for 23 years prior to 1984--the world's first continuous onsite PCC plant.)

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"The Development of Standard Specification for Permanent Records in the Netherlands," by Judith H. Hofenk de Graaff (Central Research Laboratory for Objects of Art and Science, Gabriël Metsustraat 8, 1071 EA Amsterdam, The Netherlands). A paper given at the 6th IADA Congress, 1987, Berlin. 8 pp. (iada=Internationale Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Archiv-, Bibliotheks- und Graphikrestauratoren) They compared the results of MIT and Schopper fold testing, and found that there was a poor correspondence before aging, but that the percentages of retention after aging were similar. Specifications have been formulated and at that time it was planned to present them to the government:

No unbleached woodpulp or groundwood pH 7.5 to 9.5 by the cold extraction method Minimum 2% filler of calcium or magnesium carbonate No alum

Brightness: directional reflectance Elrepho R 457 Internal tear: minimum 60 g (average MD/CD)

Fold endurance: minimum 150 (Schopper; average MD/CD) Retention of at least 80%. of the fold and tear values after accelerated aging 3 days at 105°C (or with a better aging test, when it is developed)

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Two very good summaries of the recent trend to alkaline papermaking are:

"The Alkaline Switch," by William C. Sellers (Hammermill Papers), p. 232 in Pulp & Paper, June 1989. In one page he hits all the high points including why mills convert, market prices, and why offices and agencies sometimes need to keep papers a long time.

Papermaking Goes Alkaline," by William H. Bureau. Graphic Arts Monthly, June 1989, p. 116, 118. He points out the benefits for recycling (stronger fiber) and wonders if acid sizing would ever have been used if synthetic sizing materials had been available in 1803. A good general article.

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Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal (Villagatan 1, S-114 32 Stockholm, Sweden) is aimed at both researchers and technicians, and comes out four times a year. The subscription form is ambiguous about price. It says: "Subscription rates for one year (4 issues): 1 copy of Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal SEX 1,300. Additional [copies] SEK 950." That would be $205.40 and $150.10, respectively, pretty steep for a single copy but not bad for a year's subscription.

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There is a kind of paper that cannot be photocopied or faked, because it supposedly traps the light emitted by the copy or fax machine. Perhaps its color (deep burgundy) has something to do with it. Nocopi (pronounced no-copy) International Inc. holds the patent to it and Hammermill (Erie) and Wausau (Brokaw) manufacture it with the aid of special dyes provided by Nocopi. Pink and yellow sheets are in the future. Sales are big to governments and other organizations concerned with security. Regina McGrath has a 2-page article on it in the April Pulp & Paper, P. 175-6. She mentions use of Nocopi for computer manuals, videocassette labels, bar codes on ID cards, tickets to rock concerts; also for a felt highlighter to keep highlighted parts from being copied (in development).

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Dana G. Mead, Executive Vice President of International Paper Co., reviews the developments of the last few years at his company, including its program of conversion to alkaline, in an article by Rob Galin, "IP Takes Advantage of Profitability of Expanding into World Markets," Pulp & Paper May 1989, P. 112-113. Mead says IP will continue to expand into the coated free-sheet market.

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"Trends in Wet-End Chemistry: An Interview with Joe Marton, Part II," by Barbara Wortley. Pima Magazine, June 1989, P. 79, 82. Dr. Marton operates J&T Associates in Silver Spring, MD. He says the "demand for increased sheet strength and permanency" is one of the factors pushing the industry to convert to alkaline, and describes how polyaluminum chloride and cationic starch are used to solve some of the production problem with neutral size and high pH.

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At the June 1989 meeting of the American Institute for Conservation's Book and Paper Specialty Group, 19 papers were given, them the following:

"Analysis and Characterization of Some Paper Coatings by FTIR Microspectroscopy," by Mary T. Baker, Dianne van der Reyden and Nancie Ravenel.

"Accelerated Aging of Paper Within Plastic Film Envelopes and Cardboard Boxes: Implications for Long-Term Storage of Archival Materials," by F. H. Hengemihle, N. Lindsey and C. J. Shahani. Enclosure, even if it was not airtight, accelerated degradation during oven aging by a large factor.

"Observations on the Drying of Paper and Their Application to Treatment," by Timothy Vitale and Jane Sugarman. Five drying techniques were tested; the best gave early control of the sheets' tendency to distort, and used moderate pressure.

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"A Bibliographical Survey of the Bleaching of Paper," by A. Lienardy and P. van Damme. A careful survey of the international literature on bleaching of books and papers with various oxidants, acids, reducing agents and light, 19361987. 51 refs. In Restaurator 9:4, 1988, p. 178-198.

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"Mass Deacidification for Libraries: 1989 Update," by George Martin Cunha. Library Technology Reports 25:1, Jan./Feb. 1989, p. 5-81. A survey of methods for raising the pH of books printed an acidic paper and thus prolonging their life. There are now two operating mass deacidification facilities in North America (at the National Archives in Canada, and at Book Preservation Associates in New Jersey), one more than there was in 1987 when the original report by Cunha was published. Three others are very close to being ready (the Library of Congress's diethyl zinc method, the Bookkeeper Process of Preservation Technologies Inc., and the Lithium Corporation's process). BPA's and Lithco's processes are also said to strengthen brittle paper. They use, respectively, ammonia and ethylene oxide, and a long-chain magnesium alkoxide. All of these companies and several more are expected to bid on the job of deacidifying the Library of Congress's books. The request for proposals was supposed to go out in June 1989, but had not been issued by press time.

Single issues of LTR cost $45. Order from American Library Association, 50 E. Huron St., Chicago, IL 60611 (312/944-6780; ask for Howard White).

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"Fact Sheet: Alkaline Paper: Activities Outside the United States." May 1989. 3 pp. Available without charge from the National Preservation Program Office, LM-G07, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540 (202/287-1840). Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, UK, and Australia are covered briefly, especially with regard to alkaline mills, permanence standards, and use of alkaline paper by the government. For instance: The last of the paper mills in Finland went alkaline in April 1989.... A reference group at the [Swedish] National Archive,; is discussing recommending alkaline paper for everything [published by the government] .... There is no UK standard for permanent paper; they are waiting for the establishment of an ISO standard.

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"Darkening of Paper Following Exposure to Visible and Near-Ultraviolet Radiation," by S. B. Lee, J. Bogaard and R. L. Feller. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 28:1, Spring 1989, p. 1-18. Regardless of whether darkening or bleaching took place during exposure to visible or near-ultraviolet radiation, papers darkened upon subsequent storage in the dark over three months' time at normal room conditions. The lower the pH and the higher the lignin content, the more they darkened; but hot-alkali-soluble matter was not positively correlated with darkening.

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URL: http://cool.conservation-us.org/byorg/abbey/ap/ap02/ap02-2/ap02-210.html
Timestamp: Sunday, 03-Mar-2013 21:41:19 PST
Retrieved: Saturday, 25-Nov-2017 09:14:29 GMT