Ivar A.L. Hoel, "Papirnedbrydning: En undersøgelse af papersurhed og papirstyrke i nordiske bøger 1850-1985." (Det kongelige bibliotek. Forskningsrapporter 1) København, 1987. The English title is, "Paper Deterioration: A Study of Paper Acidity and Paper Strength in Nordic Books 1850-1985." There is an English summary on p. 97-99. Copies of the same books from the Library of Congress and Nordic libraries differed in pH by about 1/3 of a pH point, with the Library of Congress books being consistently more acidic. The differences in acidity between U.S. and Nordic books, and between Nordic books from different cities, were greater than any observed differences between the edge and the center of a page, so air pollution was judged to be a minor factor in Nordic cities. Humidity was seen as more important in deterioration than heat. The difference in pH values between the two countries depended on the number of years the book had been in the U.S.
Essays in Paper Analysis. Stephen Spector, ed. Washington: Folger Shakespeare Library, 1987. This volume contains nine papers on paper history from the viewpoint of the bibliographer. Two that are relevant to paper history from the papermaker's point are:
David Schoonover, "Techniques of Reproducing Watermarks: A Practical Introduction:
David Woodward, "The Analysis of Paper and Ink in Early Maps: Opportunities and Realities"
"Improving the Performance of Alkaline Paper on the IBM3800 (R) Laser Printer." A 13-page handout, by John C. Gast of Hercules, from a poster session at the last TAPPI meeting. It consists of an abstract and reproductions of slides used for an oral presentation. The author says that operating problems on high speed forms presses, envelope and tablet machines, and performance on the IBM 3800 (R) laser printer have been barriers to alkaline conversion. Major factors in runnability are pulp type, reactive size furnish (less is better; 1-3 lb/ton), and filler type and loading (clay with the carbonate definitely helps, despite reducing the coefficient of friction). Another thing: They found that is may take 30 minutes for the machine to reach optimal performance on a good paper, after running a bad paper. Bad paper that is run after good paper, however, will make the machine misbehave in half that time.
TAPPI Press is having a big clearance sale with the best prices you may ever see. 1988 and 1989 proceedings and seminar notes, 38 volumes total, are now $25 apiece; 14 more are $10 apiece; and there is a mixed list of 19 publications for $2 to $50 apiece. Shipping is extra. Write to TAPPI Press, PO Box 102556, Atlanta, GA 30368-0556, or call 800/332-8686 (Canada, 800/446-9431).
The second edition of James d'A. Clark's Pulp Technology and Treatment for Paper, advertised as "Revised and enlarged [with] new material" in the January Pulp & Paper, is not new at all, and contains no new material. It was published in 1985, and was revised by the author just before he died. Despite this misleading advertising, it is a good book, 878 pages long. It can be ordered from Miller Freeman Publications, 408/848-5296, for $97 plus shipping.
"Alkaline Paper --An Environmentally Friendly Approach," by Peter White and Gordon Hewitt. Paper Southern Africa, Nov./Dec. 1990. Sections are entitled:
Energy reduction--Drainage and drying
The authors work for a chemical supply company.
Paper Age 1990 Recycling Annual contains 62 pages of material, mostly short articles, on recycling. For information on availability, call the National Sales/Marketing Office, 617/471-6847.
The April American Papermaker contains two articles that seem to be on opposite sides of the fence, though they may both be right:
"Paper Recycling Creates Its Own Set of Environmental Problems," by Pat L. Hoekstra
"Study Indicates Sludge Could be Effective Landfill Cover," by Charles E. Swarm
"Organic Halogens in Unpolluted Waters and Large Bodies of Water Receiving Bleach Plant Effluents," by Anders Grimvall et al. Tappi J. 74/5, May 1991, p. 197-203. Unpolluted and polluted bodies of water in Sweden were studied; highest concentrations of organic halogens were found in the unpolluted waters. "Mass balance calculations showed that different processes in terrestrial environments make large contributions of AOX [adsorbable organic halogens]."
Progress in Paper Recycling is a projected international quarterly journal, the first issue of which should appear in the fourth quarter of 1991. Its main objective will be to promote the understanding of scientific principles and act as a catalyst for innovative recycling technologies. Regular features will include a contaminant catalog, Recycling 101" (to bring everyone up to speed), and a recycling digest of existing literature. Until August 31, the subscription price is $63/year; after that, $79/year. Call or fax Marianne Fiscus, Managing Editor, at 414/832-9101 (fax 832-0870) or Jyoti Doshi, Publisher, at 414/731-9372 (fax 832-0870).
"Paper Versus Polystyrene: A Complex Choice," by Martin B. Hocking. Science v.251, Feb. 1, 1991, p. 504-505. This paper is just what the doctor ordered if you are bored or repelled by "green" consumerism that prescribes single solutions to environmental problems. It lays out all the important pros and cons in the choice of a disposable coffee cup, calculates environmental costs, and quantifies the various factors so they can be weighed against each other. Neither paper nor polystyrene degrades in landfills; neither is made using CFCs, which destroy the ozone layer. The paper cup cannot be recycled because of the adhesive seam, but the polystyrene cup can be recycled into a variety of products. The polystyrene cup is manufactured with a small fraction of the energy and chemical requirements of the paper cup, and generates far less air and water pollution. 21 references.
"RPN [Recycled Paper News] Conference Report: Focus '95. The Paper Industry Assesses Its Role in Recycling." Recycled Paper News 1(9), May 1991, p. 5-8. "Focus '95," a conference sponsored by six paper-related organizations, was intended to bring together all players in the field of recycled paper, but was underattended by representatives from the public policy, solid waste, procurement, paper broker and environmental communities. This article summarizes the presentations given. The proceedings can be ordered from TAPPI Press at 800-446-9431.
In the March issue of RPN, there is a two-page table summarizing the features of recycling legislation in the various states. The June issue's lead article is on "Using Recycled Fibers in Coated Paper," something formerly thought impossible. On P. 6-10 is a report of the (Center for Earth Resource Management Applications) recycled paper conference in St. Louis last April. Proceedings will not be published, apparently, but videotapes of most sessions are available for $25 each from CERMA, 703/750-1158.
"Mechanical Pulps are Receiving More Attention from Today's Papermakers," by Joseph A. Kurdin. Amer. Papermaker, June 1991, p. 41, 43. As the cost of woodchips rises and wood supplies shrink, high-yield cal pulps (including CTMP) look more attractive to papermakers, though the high and rising costs of energy to produce mechanical pulps is a restraining factor.
"Conversion from Acid to Alkaline with a Film Transfer Size Press," by Thomas J. White. Tappi J., June 1991, p. 124129. This is an account of the conversion of Willamette's big fine paper machine from acid to alkaline conditions.
"It's Time to Reconsider Hemp," editorial by Jim Young on p. 7 of the June 1991 Pulp & Paper. Young quotes a book called The Emperor Wears no Clothes as the authority for his statement that 75% to 90%. of the world's paper manufactured before 1883 was made from Cannabis sativa hemp fiber, the same plant that yields marijuana and THC. Believe it or not. (That story about how linen rags were collected and made into paper must be merely a rumor, then.)
"Bleach Plant Modifications, Controls Help Industry Limit Dioxin Formation," by John Bettis. Pulp & Paper, June 1991, p. 76-82. Table 1 gives the form, function, advantages and disadvantages of six oxidants, one reductant and one alkali.
"Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Finds Growing Niche in Paper Market," by Marc S. Reisch. Chemical & Engineering News, April 29, p. 9-11. This is the lead article. It devotes a good deal of space to the growing popularity of alkaline papermaking, and is based on interviews with Steve Waldken of Hercules, Rick Burns of American Cyanamid, Albert Yunko of Pfizer and others. Among the problems associated with making alkaline paper, it fails to mention that it is harder to do because the wet end chemistry is more sensitive and complex--probably because the informants didn't mention it either. A mostly accurate sidebar gives the history of paper. The article itself is a good introduction to precipitated calcium carbonate's role in modern alkaline papermaking.
The Chemistry of Neutral Papermaking, 30-31 Jan. 1990, proceedings of a Pira conference. 150 pp., £80 from Pira (tel. (+44) 0372 376161).
Neutral Sizing, by John Roberts. Pira, 1991. £60.
Timestamp: Sunday, 03-Mar-2013 21:41:48 PST
Retrieved: Monday, 22-Oct-2018 13:46:24 GMT
Timestamp: Sunday, 03-Mar-2013 21:41:48 PST
Retrieved: Monday, 22-Oct-2018 13:46:24 GMT