The Alkaline Paper Advocate

Volume 4, Number 4
Nov 1991


Literature

Thesaurus of Pulp and Paper Terms, 3rd ed. Atlanta, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, 1991. $60 for IPST member companies and $95 for others. Distributed through IPST, TAPPI, Paprican, and Arbor Publishing in Stockholm. At IPST, contact Information Services Division, Attn: Thesaurus, 575 14th St., NW, Atlanta, GA 30318-5403 (404/853-9528).

The Thesaurus provides a controlled vocabulary of keywords for the indexing and retrieval of literature about pulp and paper technology and related areas such as finishing and converting, graphics, and forestry. It contains more than 22,000 main entries--more than twice the number in the second edition published by Paprican in August 1971.

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"300 Years of American Papermaking," by Helen Wright, is the catalog of the exhibit of the same name that went up last December at the National Museum of American History in Washington, DC. Originally scheduled to come down in November 1991, the exhibit is now scheduled to run through Jan. 6, 1992. The catalog has 32 pages and sells for $5 from Division of Graphic Arts, MAH-5703, Mail Stop 633, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560

From the catalog we learn that the exhibit includes a model of the first Fourdrinier paper machine, cartridges wrapped in--what else?--cartridge paper, a 1/3 dollar note in continental currency, a drawing of Thomas Gilpin's American cylinder machine (which got to America before the Fourdrinier), samples of bagasse paper and flax straw paper, a sample folder of cornstalk paper from about 1925, a kraft paper towel from about 1920 (which proves that almost any thing becomes valuable if it's old and rare enough), the first U.S. postage stamp (1847), a government-issue postcard (1873), punch cards from 1886, 1920s and 1960s, a railroad passenger car wheel with a paper core (1886), an 1880s ad for roofing paper, cigarette rolling papers from the 1930s, a paper violin, ad for water closet paper (about 1900) and lots more.

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"The Effects of Recycling m Paper Quality," by R.C. Howard. Paper Technology, Apr. 1991, p. 20-25. This is an excellent and much needed review of work in the field, most of which was done since the late 1960s. The literature is summarized under three headings: 1) general effect of recycling, 2) factors controlling the recycle potential, and 3) the recovery of papermaking potential. Main conclusions: 1) The principal effect of recycling on chemical pulp is a loss of fiber bonding ability, which is most noticeable in the first recycle. 2) Recyclability is affected by most aspects of the manufacturing process. 3) Recovery of recycle potential is possible by refining, by chemical additives, by blending with virgin pulp and by fractionation. 57 refs.

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CERM's Recycled Handbook 1991 contains articles on paper manufacturing, state and federal legislation, efforts to establish national recycled paper standards, performance testing, office paper recycling, "green" labelling, what is recyclable,, and material content definitions. There is a directory of recycled paper and paper products, by categories, with manufacturers' addresses and phone numbers, and other lists and sections. $25 from Center for Earth Resource Management Applications, Inc., 5528 Hempstead Way, Springfield, VA 22151 (703/750-1158).

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"Paper Recycling--From Option to Mandate," by Daniel B.. Mulligan and Gerald M. Hodgson. ASTM Standardization News, - April 1991, p. 46-51. A good summary, with diagrams that give data otherwise hard to come by. It gives background to the work of ASTM Subcommittee D06.40, on recycled papers.

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"A Review of Ink-Removal Techniques in Current Deinking Technology," by A. Shrinath, J.T. Szewczak, and I. Jerry Bowen. Tappi Journal, July 1991, p. 85-93. There are. descriptions of nine ink-setting methods, a table of seven types of deinking chemicals and their characteristics, descriptions of the four principal printing methods and the three principal imaging methods, and a section an ink-removal strategies. 16 refs.

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The papers given at the May pulp and paper symposium at Miami University, "Wet End Chemistry Developments for the Nineties," won't be published as proceedings, but they can be written for individually, and most of them will probably appear in various publications in the future. Also, a summary of the symposium, with abstracts of the papers, has been prepared for distribution to interested persons, and is available from the Paper Science and Engineering Department, 229 Gaskill Hall, Oxford, OH 45056 (513/529-2200). Several of the papers related directly to alkaline papermaking--dyeing under alkaline conditions, computer-aided online control for alkaline papermaking, surface-modified PCC and others.

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"Edible Paper." Packag. Trends Japan no. 90-i, 5 Jan. 1990, p. 1. The Sadai Physics and Chemistry Institute has developed an edible paper made from the residue from tofu manufacture. Its most suitable application is as a spice pouch for Chinese noodles, since the paper dissolves in hot water.

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"Focus on Neutral Papermaking," by Barbara Wortley. PIMA Magazine, Oct. 1990, p. 51-52. This discusses some of the ideas brought up at two lunchtime seminars at TAPPI Papermakers Conference in April 1990.

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"Alkaline Update: A PIMA Magazine Roundtable." PIMA Magazine, April 1991, p. 32, 35-37, 40-41. John Breese of Eka Nobel says that most paperboard mills in Canada have already converted to alkaline systems, partly because of recycled alkaline broke, partly for better drainage, simplified chemical system, feed increase and cleaner machine system. Other participants were Detlev Glittenberg (Cerestar research center, Euro Centre Paper), Kasy King (James River), Jim Maher (American Cyanamide), Nick Rende (Nalco), Richard Ross (consultant, Buckman Labs) and Ernest Swanson and Susan Wilber (both of Omya). Some of the questions related to the likelihood of newsprint and paperboard going alkaline, whether alkaline conversions are as tricky now as they used to be, the challenges involved in reaching filler levels of 30 to 40%, and how sizing chemistry and technology have been changing because of the shift to alkaline papermaking.

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"Alkaline Conversion: Problems with Deposits and Their Solutions," by Douglas Caulkins. 76th Annual Meeting, Technical Section, Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Jan. 1990, Preprints "A", p. A163-167. Slime deposits from bacteria and fungi are a problem for the paper, made more important by recent developments: longer wearing fabrics and felts, modern headbox design, water conservation (greater reuse of water within the mill), and conversion to alkaline paper. Bacteria are the biggest problem in alkaline systems, preferring a pH range from 5.9 to 9.0, and fungi preferring a range from 4.0 to 7.8. (Both, however, can grow over a wider pH range and in a wide temperature range.) Advice for control of slime deposits is given.

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Paper Conservation News, No. 58, June 1991, has a couple of item in it that readers may want to read for themselves:

1. A half-page report by Alison Richmond of talks [a talk?] given by Julius Grant to IPC members, March 8. He described his long career in forensic analysis of books and documents (on which he published a well-known book in 1940) and works of art, as well as in the paper industry, running mills and developing new kinds of paper. The last paragraph in Richmond's report says, "Dr. Grant's delivery is deadpan. During his lecture which, at its funniest moments, had the whole audience roaring, he gives no more than a little chuckle. His recollections of a career, unique among his contemporaries and packed with anecdotes more likely to be associated with international intrigue than with forensic science, are a tour de force of understatement. If you ever have the opportunity of hearing him speak don't miss it. But hurry-Dr. Grant is 94."

2. An English translation of a 98-page article on Arab paper, written by Joseph von Karabacek in 1887, is described on p. 11. It is available for about £10 plus postage & handling from Canonbury Bookshop, c/o 3 Canonbury Park South, London, N1 2JR.

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Kvävedioxids effekter på papper (Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Paper), by Tommy Iverson and Jiri Kolar. (FoU-proiektet for papperskonservering, Rapport nr 5) Although this report is written in Swedish, there is a three-page English summary and all the figure legends are translated to English. This was a pilot project to determine whether normal urban concentrations of NO2 can affect the stability of paper. High gas concentrations, rather than high temperatures, were used for accelerated aging. Only brightness of mechanical pulp papers was adversely affected.

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The Datek Imaging Supplies Monthly for May gives the sources (types) of principal toner binders for 25 companies. The most popular ones are styrene acrylic and polyester, and the least popular ones are polystyrene and polyamide. Others used are styrene butadiene, acrylic and epoxy. Counting the 'Miscellaneous binders, each company uses 1-4 different binders. For a copy, call Robert Leahy, Editor, at 617/893-9130.

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Luis Nadeau, whose Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic, and Photomechanical Processes has become a classic in the museum and archive world, has drawn up a 6-page "Chronology of Office Copying Processes" (first entry 1714) in draft form, complete with index. He is looking for comments and corrections, and is willing to have photocopies of it circulated for this purpose even though it will appear as an appendix in the third edition of his encyclopedia. The Abbey Publications office will cooperate by sending it out in return for a self-addressed business length envelope with 52. postage on it.

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At the National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Atlanta, the Cellulose Division met April 15-16 (1991) and heard 39 papers on lignin. Most of the material was only understandable to chemists, but seemed to be oriented to practical application. The abstracts, on 11 small pages, can be ordered from the American Chemical Society, 1155 16th St., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (202/872-4600).

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URL: http://cool.conservation-us.org/byorg/abbey/ap/ap04/ap04-4/ap04-409.html
Timestamp: Sunday, 03-Mar-2013 21:41:51 PST
Retrieved: Tuesday, 21-Nov-2017 23:19:08 GMT