The Alkaline Paper Advocate

Volume 4, Number 5
Nov 1991


Permanent Papers on the Market

by Ellen McCrady

Most of the papers listed in Table 1 are those named by the 23 paper companies that returned the Abbey Publications questionnaire on permanent papers by August 15, 1991. The list is probably not comprehensive. Ten of the companies that did not reply are Cross Pointe, Eastern, Finch Pruyn, Parsons, Patriot, Potsdam, Riverside, Simpson Pasadena, Warren, and George Whiting. These companies make all or most of their paper in the alkaline range, and probably some their papers meet standards, so they should not be ruled out just because they are not on the list. Other companies (like Howard, which makes Permalife) make both acid paper and acid-free permanent paper.

We have made an effort to clarify any ambiguous questionnaire responses by making follow-up calls to the companies, with limited success. We did not, however, insist on including only papers that corresponded exactly to the type covered by a standard, because this would have meant omission of many papers that are indeed long-lived. (Standards exist for only a limited range of papers, so far.)

For more information on just what kind of printing ("ptg") or office ("ofc") papers these are, see Walden's Paper Catalog or one of the directories published by Grade Finders, Inc. Most printers and distributors have copies of these directories; ask them to let you use their copy.

Simplified summaries of the ANSI and ASTM standards are given in Tables 2 and 3. These, rather than the complete text of the standards, are probably what respondents used to fill in the questionnaires, so this list should not be taken too literally. The tear specifications, in particular, must have gotten short shrift, because they are oversimplified here. However, we had to start somewhere. Each "edition" of this list is intended to improve on the previous edition.

Each ASTM standard is really six standards, because there are three levels of permanence, and each of them has two levels of durability. To simplify the picture, respondents were asked to specify only whether their papers met the highest level of permanence and the lowest level of durability for a given ASTM standard. One of the respondents signified that four of their papers met the second level of permanence, by adding a II after the standard number. This means that these papers are expected to last over 100 years (Type II, High Permanence), rather than several hundred years (Type 1, Maximum Permanence).

The row of specs for tear resistance in Table 2 is rather confusing. The different standards use three different measures for resistance to tearing: g (gram, really a measure of weight that often does double duty as a measure of force); gf (gram force, which is the same as the gram under standard gravity conditions on earth); and N (newton, a unit of force which has come into wider use recently; one mN or millinewton=9.81 gf). In future standards, we can expect to see this confusion cleared up. We will also see more frequent use of measures in the form of indexes, which will take into account the thickness of the paper and thus allow the use of one value regardless of weight or thickness.

Complete standards are available from ASTM, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA 19103 (215/299-5400) and (for ANSI Z39.48) from Transaction Publishers, Dept. NISO Standards, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (201/932-2280). Both of these organizations are expected to issue revisions of their paper permanence standards within the coming year.

Over 50 papers in this list are recycled, by the broadest definition. Of these 38 appear to contain fiber recycled from outside the mill, that is, to contain more than mill broke. "% PC" means "percent postconsumer waste."

Table 1. Permanent Papers, Standards Met, and Main Use

Paper Grade

Standard

%
Recyc.

%
PC

Main Use

Appleton (All carbonless)

Recover products

D 3290

40

10

Ofc

Superior CB & CFB

D 3290

0

0

Ofc

Sprint Freesheet CB & CFB

D 3290

0

0

Ofc

White CB: 10.2, 15, 17.5, 20, 26 & 30 lb

D 3290

0

0

Ofc

Boise Cascade

All forms bond

D 3290

50

10

Ofc

All offset

D 3290

50

10

Ptg

All xerographic

D 3458

50

10

Ofc

All envelope

D 3290

0

0

Ofc

All tablet

D 3290

50

10

Ofc

All ledger

D 3290

0

0

Ofc

All tagboard

D-3290

0

0

Ofc

All label

D 3290

0

0

Ptg

All advanced technology papers

D 3290

0

0

Ptg

Champion International

Carnival Text & Coverl

ANSI

0

0

ptg

Pageantry Text & Cover

ANSI

0

0

ptg

Mystique Laid Wrtg Text & Cover

ANSI

0

0

O/P

Benefit Writing, Text & Cover

ANSI

40

10

O/P

Consolidated2

Crane3

       

Weston Xerographic

All

100

0

Ofc

Ecusta

Waylite

ANSI

20

0

Ptg

Nyalite

ANSI

20

0

Ptg

Esleeck

       

Montague Writing

D 3290 I

0

0

Ofc

Collateral

D 3290 I

0

0

Ofc

Notary Bond

D 3290 1

0

0

Ofc

Green River Bond

D 3290 H

0

0

Ofc

Recorder Bond

D 3290 II

0

0

Ofc

Reissue Bond

D 3290 II

85-90

10-15

Ofc

Fletcher

Founder's Opake(27-60#)

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Alpenopake (30#)

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Flecopake (28 - 60#)

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Geopake

ANSI

40

10

Ptg

Glatfelter

Glatfelter Offset

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Glatfelter

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Glatfelter Hi-Brite

Offset

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Supple Offset

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Supple Opaque Offset

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Supple Hi-Brite Offset

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Writers Offset

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Mi-Web

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

B.P. Litho

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Spring Forge Offset

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Thor Offset

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Thor Cote II

ANSI

50+

0

Ptg

Restore Cote

ANSI

50+

0

Ptg

Reference Opaque 84

ANSI

50+

0

Ptg

Reference Opaque 81

ANSI

50+

0

Ptg

Stabilite

ANSI

50+

0

Ptg

Hammermill

Ham. Savings DP

ANSI

40

10

Ofc

Ham. Bond

ANSI

0

0

Ofc

Ham. Fore DP

ANSI

0

0

Ofc

Ham. Tidal DP

ANSI

0

0

Ofc

Ham. Xero-Lasercopy

ANSI

0

0

Ofc

Ham. Offset Opaque

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Ham. Accent Opaque

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Ham. South Shore Offset

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Ham.Hy*o*lite

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Ham. Copy Plus

ANSI

0

0

Ofc

Ham. Laser Print

ANSI

0

0

Ofc

Ham. Copier SV4

ANSI

0

0

Ofc

Discovery Opaque

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Saving Offset (R)

ANSI

40

10

Ptg

Saving Opaque (R)

ANSI

40

10

Ptg

Harborlite

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Mead

51# Harmony

ANSI

75

0

Ofc

61# Papeterie

ANSI

25

0

Ptg

70# Mead Offset Opaque

ANSI

25

0

Ptg

80# Mead Offset Opaque

ANSI

35

0

Ptg

70# Moistrite Matte

ANSI

25

0

Ptg

Merrimac

       

Alkaline File Folder

D-3301 I

0

0

Ofc

Mohawk

Mohawk Vellum4

ANSI/ASTM5

0

0

Ptg

Mohawk Superfine

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

Ptg

Poseidon Perfect White

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

Ptg

Navajo Cover

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

Ptg

Ultrafelt4

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

Ptg

Artemis4

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

Ptg

Irish Linen4

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

Ptg

Nuance

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

Ptg

Ticonderoga

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

Ptg

Mohawk Satin4

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

Ptg

Mohawk Copytext

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

Ptg

Mohawk P/C (whites)

ANSI/ASTM

50

10

Ptg

Mohawk P/C (colors)4

ANSI/ASTM

25-50

50

Ptg

Mohawk P/C 100

ANSI/ASTM

0

100

Ptg

Monadnock

Dulcet

ANSI/D 3290

0

0

Ptg

Caress

ANSI/D 3290

0

0

Ptg

Revue

ANSI/D 3290

60

15

Ptg

Noranda

Oxford Opaque

ANSI

50

10

Ptg

Phoenix Opaque

ANSI

50

10

Ptg

Renew Antique

ANSI

50

10

Ptg

Penntech

Penn Text

ANSI

5-10

0

Ptg

Clarion Book

ANSI

5-10

0

Ptg

Pennbook

ANSI

5-10

0

Ptg

Highland Book

ANSI

5-10

0

Ptg

Penn Plus

ANSI

5-10

0

Ptg

Penn Supreme

ANSI

5-10

0

Ptg

Clearfield Opaque

ANSI

5-10

0

Ptg

Potlatch2

Simpson

Simpson Hy-Opaque

ANSI/ASTM5

0

0

Ptg

Protocol 100

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

Ptg

Warm White Teton

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

Ptg

Starwhite Vicksburg Archiva

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Archival Bond

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

Ofc

Simpson Plainwell

Satin Kote

ANSI

50

0

Ofc

Simpson Opaque

ANSI

0

0

Ofc

Simpson Recyc. Offset

ANSI

50

0

Ofc

Stora Papyrus Newton Fall

Champlain Gloss

ANSI

50

0

Ptg

MultiArt Gloss & Silk

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

St. Lawrence Gloss

ANSI

50+

10

Ptg

Marcy Plus

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Marcy Matte

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Stora Matte

ANSI

50

0

Ptg

G-Print Matte

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

St. Lawrence Ctd 1 side

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Whitemost CIS Beer Label

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Cream White Stora Matte

ANSI

50

0

Ptg

Union Camp6

Ward

Ward Brite-Hue(std colors only)

ANSI

50

0

Ptg

Ward Forward Vellum Opaque

ANSI

50

0

Ptg

Ward Lake Shore 25

ANSI

50

20

Ofc

Ward Cimarron

ANSI

50

25

Ofc

Westvaco

Amer. Eagle Envelope

ANSI

50

10

Ptg

Wove

ANSI

50

10

Ptg

Amer. Eagle Hi-D PC

ANSI

50

10

Ptg

Clear Spring Offset Vellum

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Clear Spring Envelope Wove

ANSI

0

0

Ptg

Weyerhaeuser

Husky Opaque

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

ptg

Lynx Opaque

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

ptg

Cougar Opaque

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

Ptg

Jaguar Opaque

ANSI/ASTM

0

0

Ptg

Willamette

       

All forms bond

ANSI/D 3290

5-10

0

Ofc

All xerographic

ANSI/D 3458

5-10

0

Ofc

All tablet

ANSI

5-10

0

Ofc

All offset

ANSI

5-10

0

Ptg

Notes

1. Champion International. The four deep shade Carnival Cover grades will remain acid sized until late in 1991.

2. Consolidated & Potlatch both make alkaline coated papers, for which there is no permanence standard at present.

3. Crane. A note on the 1990 survey says they have the capability to manufacture all bonds, ledgers, indexes and Save-A-Source recycled paper to meet the ASTM, ANSI, or other specifications as requested by customers.

4. Mohawk. Except midnight blue, navy blue, autumn red, berry, charcoal, forest green, cordovan, plum and ash gray.

5. All papers listed for Mohawk meet the specs of both ASTM D-3290 (bond and ledger papers) and ASTM D-3458 (copy papers). Simpson papers identified as meeting ASTM standards also meet these two standards.

6. Union Camp replied (to the first questionnaire, in 1990), "At the present time all of our papers are manufactured to a level less than 7.0. Several trials have been conducted on alkaline sized paper and Union Camp's Fine Paper Division is presently making plans for a conversion to alkaline sizing in 1991."

Table 2. ASTM Standards for Permanent Records Papers: Specifications for Maximum Permanence (Type I), Ordinary Use

 

D 3208-86
Manifold Papers

D 3290-86
Bond & Ledger Papers

D 3301-85
File Folders

D 3458-85
Copies from Office Copy Machines

pH

7.5 - 9.5

7.5 - 9.5

7.5 - 9.5

7.5 - 9.5

Alkaline reserve

20/o

20/o

20/o

20/o

Fiber

New cotton or linen pulp, fully bleached wood, cotton or flax pulp or a mixture... o unbleached wood pulp or groundwood

Cotton or linen pulp, fully bleached wood pulp or a mixture... No unbleached pulp or goundwood

New cotton or linen pulp, bleached or Unbleached wood pulp, rope, jute or mixture. No Groundwood

Fully bleached wood, cotton or flax or a mixture. No unbleached wood pulp or groundwood

Fold endurance

-------

-------

300, average both directions

------

Tear resistance

18 gf (177 mN) each direction

22-60 g for 13-24 lb. bond;

60- 1 00 g for 24-36 lb. ledger

180 - 500 g for 8-14 mil Stock

30 gf

Table 3. ANSI Standard (Z39.48-1984), Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials

pH - 7.5 min.
Alkaline reserve - 2% calcium carbonate, min.
Fiber (paper stock) - No groundwood or unbleached pulp Fold endurance - 30 double folds, average both directions
Tear resistance - 24-50 g for 30-60 lb. paper, MD, min.

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Timestamp: Sunday, 03-Mar-2013 21:41:53 PST
Retrieved: Wednesday, 22-Nov-2017 03:46:48 GMT