The Alkaline Paper Advocate

Volume 06, Number 1
Jun 1993


Literature

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Permanent Papers and the Subject of Author's Editions. Holliston Mills, Inc., Norwood, Massachusetts, 1934. About 300 unnumbered pages, clothbound, uncut, in quarto, with the inner pages of each signature blank, and most outer pages also blank except for a brief identification of the paper used for that section. Some pages carry drawings or brief excerpts from popular literature, and there are longer messages from the publisher in the front and back, which say, in part:

This book is intended primarily to present the idea of "Author's Editions" and to introduce Holliston D.E. Text and Holliston Permanent Record Book Papers....

All Materials used in producing this book are Holliston products.-book paper, end paper, super reinforcing [sic] cloth, thread, glue, backlining paper, binders board, binding fabrics, and stamping ink....

We suggest that a part of the first printing of any book of obvious literary merit or the work of a popular author be made in a special edition which might be termed an "Author's Edition". This Author's Edition to be run at the same time, from the same plates, and in the same size as the regular Trade Edition-but printed on a good permanent paper and substantially and attractively bound....

Permanent paper is described as paper made with fibers "whose cellular structure is uninjured by chemicals or mechanics, and processed and size[d] without the retention of free acids or other injurious materials.... A 100% rag content should be one of the requirements for permanency. Also, the formation and length of fibers in the finished sheet should be such as to insure strength, as permanency without durability is of little value. Rosin should not be used as an engine sizing, and purest gelatin only should be used in surface sizing. The Ph. [sic] value should be as near to neutral as possible, and when the paper is burned, the ash weight should be reduced to a minimum." They also stress the importance of using pure water, like the water at their Hurlbut Mill, for papermaking.

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"Paper Problems in Sheetfed Offset Printing." GATFWORLD 5:3, 31-36, 1993. This review of paper (not necessarily alkaline paper) problems is an edited excerpt from GATF's textbook, Solving Sheetfed Offset Press Problems, published in GATFWORLD because of the increase in paper-related inquiries on GATF's hotline over the past year. For information on availability call 412/621-6941 or fax 621-3049.

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"Effect of Alkaline Papermaking on Copy Paper Properties," by Sri Soetanto, William McKean and Peter Lim. Paper given at the Pan-Pacific Pulp and Paper Technology Conference in Tokyo. Electrical properties (volume and surface resistivities) affect runnability of alkaline papers in copy machines. Sodium chloride in starch size coating, but not PCC or clay filler, can compensate for the higher resistivity given by the lower equilibrium moisture content of alkaline paper. Call the first or second author at the University of Washington, College of Forest Resources, for information on the availability of this paper. The telephone numbers are, respectively, 206/685-9372 and 206/ 543-1626.

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"Effects of Surface-size on Printability of Alkaline Paper in Inkjet Print Tests," by Lesley J. Barker, Otto S. dePierne and Robert J. Proverb. A paper presented at the 1992 International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference in Pittsburgh; p. 355-359 in the proceedings. In general, a styrene-acrylic resin demonstrated improved performance over other commercial resins, and the Bristow Wheel test was the best predictive test of print quality. Image analysis techniques were used in this study. All three authors are at American Cyanamid Company.

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"Degradation of Archives and Library Materials vs. Permanent and Durable Paper for Archives; Proceedings of the International Seminar, Bratislava, April 22-23,1993." Compiled, edited and technically prepared by Jozef Hanus. Slovak National Archives, Bratislava, 1993. 80 pp. English titles, long English summaries and occasional complete translations make this easy for English-speaking readers to follow. Forty-six participants are listed, with addresses. Most were from the Slovak Republic, but some also came from the Czech Republic, Slovenia in the former Yugoslavia, Austria and Hungary. Printed on alkaline paper with acid cover stock.

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"Why is Mead-Escanaba an Acid-Free Mill? What is an Acid-Free Mill?" This is an illustrated leaflet that answers these two questions. Excerpts:

Today's customers are demanding coated papers that are whiter, brighter, have improved print quality, and are resistant to aging.

At Mead-Escanaba we have moved to acid-free paper manufacture on a mill-wide basis. Every grade and basis weight produced in Escanaba is acid-free, including Escanaba Enamel and Northcote RMP, the RMP (refiner mechanical pulp) containing grades.... We have increased brightnesses across our grade line.

For a copy, call Sharon Williamson at Mead, 513/495-3535.

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Charrette Laser Paper Selector, 100 Series. Charrette, 31 Olympia Ave., Woburn, MA 01888 (800/367-3729, fax 800/626-7889). This is a sample paper book of colored, white and transparent laser papers and an order form, with a guide in the front giving paper sizes and special features. One of the special features is "Archival quality." The criterion for inclusion in this category is not given, but 20 out of the 30 papers meet it.

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The Daniel Smith catalog of artists' materials, Reference Catalog 1992/93, has a "Comparative Paper Chart" for papers used for making prints. It indicates method of fabrication (handmade, mouldmade, machine-made), whether it has deckle edges, sizing (light, heavy, moderate), printmaking uses, and whether it is acid-free. Thirty-three of the 36 papers are acid-free., including the Arches, Canson and most of the Fabriano papers. There is also a 4-1/2-page "Glossary of Paper Terms" which would benefit from a revision with input from the paper industry. In fact, both the TAPPI Paper Permanence Subcommittee and ASTM Subcommittee D 06.20 are considering compiling such a glossary, and might be good partners. D 6.20, the subcommittee on Permanent Records Papers, has been considering a standard or guide for artist papers for several years. For information about the Reference Catalog, call 1-800/426-6740. Users of artist materials and others who are interested in ASTM's efforts on this topic are encouraged to call or write Rolland A. Aubey, 1561 Fourth St., Port Edwards, WI 54469 (715/887-5273, fax 887-5555) with their comments.

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Handbook for Pulp & Paper Technologists, 2nd ed., by Gary A. Smook. Angus Wilde Publications, 203-628 West 13th Ave., Vancouver, BC V5Z lN9, Canada. 407 pages. The review of this book in the May Tappi Journal by James M. Tucker Jr. is quite favorable. Tucker says, in essence, that the 1982 edition was good, but this is better. He says that it is clearly a textbook written by a knowledgeable technical professional for technical personnel at all levels, and even the most inexperienced reader can quickly gain an understanding of the basic technology. It is also sold for $56 by TAPPI Press (404 /446-1400).

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"The Effects of Internal Sizing on Paper Deterioration," by Christor K. Eaton and Raymond L. Janes. A paper given at the 1992 TAPPI Papermakers Conference; p. 197-214 in the proceedings. Papers sized with AKD and ASA were compared to paper sized with traditional rosin/alum size and to unsized papers at low and neutral pH. After aging for two to five days at 100°C and 23% RH, the acidic papers lost a significant amount of strength and brightness, as might be expected, and the papers having neutral or alkaline pH did not. Although the authors say that there did not appear to be an significant differences between the deterioration behavior of papers sized with AKD and ASA, the AKD-sized papers did consistently lose strength (fold, viscosity, tear, fiber strength) faster than the ASA-sized papers. Results with tensile strength and fiber bonding were mixed. Level of sizing increased with aging. The authors do not report that any filler was used. The first author is with James River Corporation and the second is with Western Michigan University, both in Kalamazoo.

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Literature on three kinds of special paper has appeared in the last year:

"Technological Trends on the Anti-Photocopying Paper," by E. Kawamura. Japan Tappi Journal v. 46 no. 6, June 1992, P. 10-22. Summarizes the research done in the field.

"Incombustible Paper." Paper v. 218 no. 3, Mar. 1993, P. 16. Toyocerasheet is made of limestone and volcanic ash silicon oxide, and can be mixed with glass or organic fiber. It can be used for heat resistant packing or it can substitute for asbestos. It was developed in Japan.

"Specification for Natural Tracing Paper." BS 7614, London, UK: British Standards Institution, 1992. 11 pp. £28 from BSI. (The abstract in PBA describes the ISO standard, 9961:1992 (E), which may be the international equivalent of the British standard.) Resistance to aging is one of the requirements.

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"Size Reversion in Alkaline Papermaking," by Robert W. Novak and Dominic S. Rende. Proceedings, TAPPI Papermakers Conference, 1993, P. 437-440. Size reversion is the loss of size response with time after the paper has been made. The work reported here suggests that size reversion increases at higher pH. Both authors are at Nalco Chemical Co.

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"Pilot Plant Dynamics and AKD Sizing," by H.W. Kropholler and A. Mendes de Sousa. A paper given at the 46th Appita Conference, 30 March to 3 April, 1992, at Launceton, Tasmania, Australia. Sizing experiments were carried out by UMIST and Portucel under neutral, acid and alkaline conditions, and sizing was shown to develop rapidly at neutral pH. A lower moisture content at reelup gave better sizing, while the presence of calcium carbonate had a bad effect on sizing.

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"Influence of Dissolved Ions on Alum Cationicity under Alkaline Papermaking Conditions," by Charles E. Farley. Tappi Journal, Nov. 1992, P. 193-199. The author addresses the question of how alum can work in alkaline environments. It is used to improve drainage and retention, and to improve the performance of ASA sizing and prevents deposits.

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"Back to the Future with Alum," by David K. Kennedy. PIMA Magazine, Jan. 1993, P. 54-55. This reviews, for its readers in management, the way that alum works in acid and alkaline systems. In a sidebar, a dozen uses are listed, from water purification at the beginning of the papermaking process to effluent treatment at the end. Dry alum has been largely replaced by liquid alum, which is about 8.3 percent A1203 and has a pH of 1.8 to 2.0. Iron-free grades are usually prepared from aluminum hydroxide, and contain 50 ppm as Fe2O3, while standard liquid alum prepared from an ore contains about 0.15% or 1500 ppm. (pima=Paper Industry Management Association)

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"Hemp Variations as Pulp Source Researched in the Netherlands," by E.P.M. de Meijer. Pulp & Paper, July 1993, P. 41-43. Fiber from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) was used in early papers, though it is doubtful that 75%-90% of paper made before 1883 could have been made with hemp, as claimed in the book called The Emperor Wears no Clothes (APA, July 1991 P. 31), because of the large amounts of cotton fiber and wood pulp used in the 100 years before that, when the paper industry was booming, and the regular use of linen rags in previous centuries. At any rate, hemp is getting a second look, as this article attests. For the last five years, the Dutch Agricultural Research Department has been collecting seeds and growing plants from all over the world for its breeding program. Its aim is to find or produce strains that are optimal for papermaking, but not for mind-bending (Cannabis sativa is one source of marijuana).

Other recent publications on this topic have appeared in the last year or so:

"Legality on Paper for Cannabis," by J. Erlichman. Guardian 1 Feb. 1993, p. 7. Currently, it says, France and Spain dominate European Community (EC) hemp production and now UK farmers will have a share of the market. The first seeds were to be sown in spring 1993.

"Morphology and Ultrastructure of Hemp Fibre," by R. Wang et al. A paper presented at the Second International Nonwood Fiber Pulping and Papermaking Conference held 6-9 April 1992 at Shanghai, v. II, p. 614-628.

"Hemp (Cannabis sativa) as a Possible Raw Material for the Paper Industry," by 1. Kovacs and A. Rab et al. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology 26(5): 627, 1992. Because of paper consumption forecasts, the authors believe that new pulp sources such as hemp will become necessary by the end of the century.

Webster's Third New International Dictionary defines the plant as follows: "A tall widely cultivated Asiatic herb (Cannabis sativa) with tough bast fiber that is used for making cloth, floor covering, and cordage--see bhang, cannabidiol, cannabin, cannabinol, cannabis, charas, hashish...."

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"Characterization of Canadian Arctic Fossil Woods," by John R. Obst and 11 other authors, seven of whom are at the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison and three of whom are from outside the United States. In Tertiary Fossil Forests of the Geodetic Hills, Axel Heiberg Island, Arctic Archipelago, edited by R.L. Christie and N. . McMillan. Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 403, P. 123-146.

Hundreds of miles north of the Arctic Circle, after the dinosaurs died out, lush forests once grew. In time they were buried in sand and silt, and were preserved in good condition. This well-illustrated paper describes how wood samples from these trees were analyzed and how some of them could be assigned to species. (All were gymnosperms, or evergreens.) The lignin and the crystalline cellulose survived in remarkably good condition, but the hemicelluloses are nearly all gone and the cellulose is degraded. This shows how stable lignin is in wood, when it has not been disturbed or modified by pulping or other treatment. There was no evidence of bacterial or fungal decay, so degradation was probably by hydrolysis.

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"Lignins: Structure and Distribution in Wood and Pulp," by John R. Obst. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 197,1990. p. 11-20. Since this article was written and prepared by U.S. government employees on official time, it is in the public domain. It covers all the major points clearly: history of lignin (beginning about 400 million years ago, when vascular plants colonized land), the nature of lignin (with chemical diagrams and descriptions), distribution of lignin in wood for different types of cells and different species, distribution of lignin in pulp fibers, and lignin reactions, especially the reactions used for making other products out of waste lignins. There is a 29-item bibliography.

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"Photostabilization of Mechanical Pulps by Polyvinylpyrrolidone," by M. Rättö et al. Tappi Journal 76 no. 6, June 1993, p. 67- 70. Handsheets from pressurized groundwood (PGW) and chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) were treated with seven kinds of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) from three companies, and then light-aged. The lowest molecular weights worked best to inhibit yellowing and actually made the pulp brighter than it was before. The PVP may be specific for the chemical groups responsible for brightness reversion in mechanical pulps. The authors say, "PVP has previously been suggested to interact with the phenolic groups of lignin via hydrogen bonds [Ishimaru and Lindstr6m, 19841. Thus, vinyl pyrrolidones can be expected to be specific adsorbents preventing the oxidation of phenol or catechol groups to quinones." This work was done in Espoo, Finland.

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"Predicting Brightness Reversion in Paper with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry," by John Koloski. Tappi Papermakers Conference, 1992, p. 21-30. FTIR was used for rapid determination of lignin content in the Government Printing Office, after complaints from government agencies about rapid brightness reversion in a particular lot of paper made from bleached sulfite pulp. The paper turned out to contain 12% lignin, because neither pulping nor the bleaching had been carried to completion.

The author anticipates that testing for lignin will become more common in the future, because of widespread use of recycled fiber, which is more likely to contain lignin because it comes from many sources. The method described is twice as fast as the usual method.

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"On the Structure and Reactivity of Residual Lignin in Kraft Pulp Fibers," by Göran Gellerstedt and Eva-Lisa Lindfors. Paper presented at the International Pulp Bleaching Conference 1991 in Stockholm, v. 1, p. 78-88. This focuses on the structure of lignin after kraft cooking and how it changes as a result of oxygen bleaching and subsequent chlorine and/or chlorine dioxide bleaching.

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"Results from the IEA Sponsored Round Robin on Lignin Analysis," by D.K. Johnson and H.L. Chum (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401). Paper presented at the American Chemical Society's Cellulose, Paper and Textile Division meeting in Denver, March 28-April 2,1993. Almost 40 laboratories in 18 countries took part, analyzing more than 20 properties in six lignins as a voluntary standards activity. The round robin compared results from different methods of lignin analysis, as well as the reproducibility of laboratories using the same method.

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Green Seal Standard GS-7, Environmental Standard for Printing and Writing Paper. First edition, June 5, 1992. 10 pp. Green Seal, Suite 275,1250 23rd St., NW, Washington, DC 20037-1101 (202/331-7337). The preface says that Green Seal is a nonprofit organization devoted to environmental standard setting, product certification, and public education. Its aim is to encourage and enable consumers to purchase environmentally preferable products and reduce their impacts on the Earth. This standard covers recycled paper requirements, deinking and bleaching methods, toxics in additional ingredients and packaging, and labelling requirements.

Green Seal also has standards for compact fluorescent lamps, water efficient fixtures, re-refined motor oil, and bathroom and facial tissue.

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Most Wonderful Machine. Mechanization and Social Change in Berkshire Paper Making, 1801-1885, by Judith A. McGaw. Published Dec. 1992. 457 pp. The publisher is not given on the photocopied catalog page at hand, but the paper copy (ISBN 0-69100625-3) costs $17.95 and the cloth copy (0-691-04740-5) costs $52.50. The author is Associate Professor of History of Technology at the University of Pennsylvania. The book has already won one prize in the history of technology and one in the history of the early American republic. The period it covers, 18011885, saw the introduction of chlorine bleaching, the paper machine, rosin sizing, groundwood and chemical pulping. Research on paper permanence did not begin until shortly after this period was over.

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"Key Alkaline Wet- and Dry-end Conversion Program Decisions: An Overview," by Stephen D. Goldstein. Tappi Journal, July 1992. To achieve a smooth conversion, five machine system programs must be examined carefully, the author says: retention, microbiological slime, boilouts, organic and inorganic chemical deposition control, and felt conditioning and cleaning.

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"Increased Carbonate Filling is Predicted for Groundwood Grades," by Jim Young. Pulp & Paper, June 1993, P. 87-88. This is an interview with consultant Bob Hagemeyer and former chair of the TAPPI Coating and Graphic Arts Division. He sees use of the pigmented size press for supercalendered grades as an immediate solution to some of the sizing and size-reversion problems. The interviewer asks about the prospects for fillers in newsprint and lightweight coated (LWC) grades; how the Europeans manage to use so much carbonate in groundwood grades and LWC; and recycling of LWC with all the filler that is in it. Hagemeyer says some newsprint is filled with amorphous silicates to prevent strike-through. The U.S. move from acid to alkaline for high-ground-content papers is just getting underway. He suggests that two ways to deal with the problem of acid furnish and alkaline filler are either to use treated carbonate or to find a way to form the paper at a pH over 6. Some supercalendered grades are being formed at 5 or 5.5.

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"RN: The Effects on Fibers from Multiple Recycles," by Loreen D. Ferguson. A paper given at the 1993 TAPPI Papermakers Conference, P. 291-305 in the proceedings. This is a review of literature on the effects of recycling on the physical properties of mechanical pulp based paper. Both mill studies and lab work are covered, and the author was heartened to see that their results showed similar trends. By and large, mechanical pulp papers were only slightly affected by recycling. (Chemical pulp fibers, however, lose bonding potential and become useless after four to seven recycling operations, according to the work done to date.)

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"Recycled Market Paper Mills: Explosive Development in the 90s," by J.L. Erkenswick and P. Hood. Resourc. Recycling 11 no. 11, Nov. 1992, pp. 57, 59-66. This article is about the nulls that buy recovered paper, deink, repulp and sell it on the market to mills without deinking facilities of their own. Estimates are that 12 producers at 15 locations have 1 million tons/year (mtpy) of pulping capacity. Another 15 projects are planned that would add over 1.6 mtpy capacity.

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The 2-volume preprints from the January 1993 meeting of the Technical Section of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association can be bought for $35 Canadian for each volume; call 514/8666621 (Fax 866-3035).

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"Total Quality Management and the Acid vs. Alkaline Debate," by Dan W. Manson. Tappi Journal, Aug. 1992, P. 12. This editorial says that conversion is sometimes difficult and expensive, and switching from acid to alkaline may not please the customers, because the alkaline papers don't run well in machines designed for acid paper-so how can anyone say it is compatible with Total Quality Management? Alkaline papermaking is just a fad anyhow like TQM, he says. 'We, as an industry, would be well advised to be more prudent on our development of alkaline papers and be more sensitive to the voice of our customer."

Both acid paper and alkaline paper have to run through the same machines, Manson says, and each kind of paper has its own set of properties, so the machines have to be adjusted to work with both types of paper, which is not easy. Were we really listening to the voice of the customer? he asks. (Does he mean that perhaps the conversion of so much of the fine paper industry to alkaline should never have been started in the first place? And does he realize that many mills converted because they were listening to the customers?)

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"New Filler Concept Could Improve Alkaline Papermaking Operations." Dtsch, Papwirtsch. no. 2,1992, P. T52. The Danish firm Faxe Kalk is entering the precipitated calcium carbonate market in Europe and hopes to expand to the US. It owns a high-purity travertine deposit in Idaho.

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"Wire Abrasion Testing and Alkaline Filler Comparisons," by Strutz and H.-U. Rapp. Tappi Journal, June 1992, P. 250. It is widely known or believed that alkaline paper is more abrasive than acid paper, because of the higher filler levels and the nature of the filler. It has a reputation for dulling blades faster and wearing out wires on paper machines faster. But the authors offer test results to show that it is not a case of clay vs. carbonates, or even (though both work for OMYA) of GCC vs. PCC. They tested synthetic wire abrasion with a new instrument that simulates wear in actual production, and found that both ultra fine ground calcium carbonate and PCC fell between U.S. clay (soft) and calcined clay or titanium dioxide (hard, abrasive) in their effect on the wire. There are abrasive and nonabrasive forms of both clay and carbonate.

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