Alkaline Paper Advocate

Volume 6, Number 3
Sep 1993


Literature

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Charrette Laser Paper Selector, 100 Series. Charrette, 31 Olympia Ave., Woburn, MA 01888 (800/367-3729, fax 800t626-7889). This is a sample paper book of colored, white and transparent laser papers and an order form, with a guide in the front giving paper sizes and special features. One of the special features is "archival quality." The criteria for inclusion in this category are not given, but 20 out of the 30 papers meet them. (Reprinted from Abbey Newsl.)

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The Daniel Smith catalog of artists' materials, Reference Catalog 1992/93, has a "Comparative Paper Chart" for papers used for making prints. It indicates method of fabrication (handmade, mouldmade, machine-made), whether it has deckle edges, sizing (light, heavy, moderate), printmaking uses, and whether it is acid-free. Thirty-three of the 36 papers are acid-free, including the Arches, Canson and most of the Fabriano papers. There is also a 4-1 /2-page "Glossary of Paper Terms" which could be helped by input from the paper industry. In fact, both the TAPPI Paper Permanence Subcommittee and ASTM Subcommittee D 06.20 on Permanent Records Papers are considering compiling such a glossary, and might be good partners, especially the ASTM subcommittee, which has been considering a standard or guide for artists' papers for several years.

For information about the Daniel Smith Reference Catalog, call 1-800/426-6740. For information on ASTM's guide for artists' papers, call or write Rolland A. Aubey, 1561 Fourth St., Port Edwards, WI 54469 (715/887-5273, fax 887-5555). (Reprinted from Abbey Newsl.)

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"Degradation of Archives and Library Materials vs. Permanent and Durable Paper for Archives; Proceedings of the International Seminar, Bratislava, April 22-23,1993." Compiled, edited and technically prepared by Jozef Hanus. Slovak National Archives, Bratislava,1993. 80 pp. English titles, long English summaries and occasional complete translations make this easy for English-speaking readers to follow. Forty-six participants are listed, with addresses. Most were from the Slovak Republic, but some also came from the Czech Republic, Slovenia in the former Yugoslavia, Austria and Hungary. Printed on alkaline paper with acid cover stock. (Reprinted from Abbey Newsl.)

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European Directory of Acid-Free and Permanent Book Paper. Edited by the European Foundation for Library Cooperation (EFLC)/ Groupe de Lausanne, on the request and with the support of the Commission of the European Communities (address: Directorate-General X; Audiovisual, Information, Communication, Culture; "Culture Unit"; rue de Trèves 120; B-1049 Brussels; Belgium). This booklet is part of "Reading for Pleasure," a campaign for raising European public awareness of books and reading. Publisher: Marc Walckiers, EFLC-Librime, 17, Chemin des Vieux Amis, B-1380 Lasne, Belgium. Published May 1993. 33 PP

The Foreword is in nine languages; the Introduction, methodology section, table listing the papers, and a technical note on the self-destruction of acid paper are in English and French; the recommendations of the 1991 Experts' Meeting on "Conservation of Acid Paper Materials and the Use of Permanent Paper" are all in English. Over 100 types of permanent book paper are listed, produced by 37 manufacturers in 14 European countries.

The Experts' Meeting at which the CEC decided to publish this booklet was reported in the February 1992 issue of this Newsletter, on p. 2. This booklet lists its recommendations, which are worded like resolutions. Four of the eight are given below.

The Experts' Meeting:

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Our Printed Legacy, by John Dundee. Edited by Merrill Brown & Philip Clark. Printed by Arts & Crafts Press (1949 West Walnut Ave., San Diego, CA 92101) as a service to the Graphic Arts Industry. [No date] 8 unnumbered pages.

A layman's introduction to papermaking and paper permanence, recommending use of the ANSI standard and citing the video "Slow Fires." The writing and editing are rough in places, and some of the facts are inaccurate (e.g., Fourdrinier is identified as two French brothers instead of English brothers), but the writer did a good job of basic outreach. Limited copies are available from Arts & Crafts Press upon written request.

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"An X-ray Photoelectron Study of the Reaction of Metal ions with Borohydride under Reductive Bleaching Conditions," by Chung-Li Lee et al. Tappi Journal 76 #2, p.129-133, Feb. 1993. This work refines an existing technique, use of sodium borohydride to reduce the oxidation states of metal ions that interfere with the bleaching action of hydrogen peroxide.

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"Control of Metal ions Through Use of Chelating Agents," by Robert Michalowski. Tappi Journal v.76 #7, p. 265-266, July 1993. Soluble metal ions get into the pulp, mainly from the wood itself, and can cause yellowing and deterioration of the paper, as well as practical troubles for the papermaker. Chelating agents such as EDTA and DTPA are used to tie up metals, the most troublesome of which are iron, manganese, copper, aluminum, calcium and magnesium. They have become more important with the increased use of hydrogen peroxide to bleach mechanical pulps, because the peroxide is inactivated by metals. This brief article is a handy guide for the papermaker.

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"The AKD Sizing Mechanism: A More Definitive Description," by Kyle J. Bottorff. Proceedings of the 1993 TAPPI Papermakers Conference, p. 441-449. The AKD-cellulose reaction was observed with solid-state 13C NMR, as was the formation of -beta-keto esters. Calcium carbonate affected the AKD, transforming it to the ketone hydrolysis product over time, at a rate that depended on the type of calcium carbonate used. Scalenohedral PCC caused the most rapid transformation, chalk the slowest by far.

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"The Use of Phase-Contrast Microscopy to Assess and Differentiate the Microbial Population of a Paper Mill," by Linda R. Robertson. Tappi Journal v. 76 #3, p. 83-87, Mar. 1993. The microphotographs in this paper are fascinating and incredible, bringing the reader as close as he could desire perhaps even closer--to the individual microorganisms and the slime deposits they build up in the machine. These organisms include algae, protozoa, filamentous bacteria and fungi, and single-celled bacteria. These organisms enter the mill mostly through the fresh water intake and will flourish, if given a chance, in the warm, nutrient-laden water. Every mill uses biocides to control the microbial populations in its machines. In acid systems, fungal filaments predominate, whereas in neutral and alkaline systems, bacterial filaments predominate.

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"Recycled vs. Virgin Fiber Characteristics: A Comparison," by Richard L. Ellis and Kelly Sedlachek. Tappi Journal v.76 #2, p. 143-146, Feb. 1993. Recycling was found to lower specific bond strength by as much as 55%; it reduces fiber strength and perimeter by about 7%. Papermakers must adjust the process to adapt to a weaker fiber.

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"The Dose Makes the Poison," by Dr. Alice Ottoboni. Garbage, Oct.-Nov. 1992, p. 38J,3. The author is a toxicologist, whose article is an antidote to nonscientific beliefs common among the public, regulators and environmentalists today, concerning the nature of poisons, natural vs. synthetic chemicals, answerable and unanswerable questions in science, and "news-media toxicity."

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"The Myth about TCF Paper," by Howard K. Berry, Nils-Gosta Vannerberg and Erik Widen. PIMA Magazine, Jan. 1993, p.2223. The authors make distinctions, ignored by Greenpeace and other environmental activists, between organic chloride compounds (AOX) and poison (AOX is also present in nature, and comes in through the water and wood; only some AOX's are toxic), and between the effects of bleaching without gaseous chlorine and without any chlorine compounds at all (ClO2 does not form toxins). They argue that consumers' money (which pays, in the end, for the costly bleaching methods forced on industry) could be better spent on other environmental goals.

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"Characterization of Possible Sources of Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans in Recycled Fiber," by A. Shariff and X.T. Nguyen. Pulp & Paper Canada 93:9 (1992) p.29-34. Dioxins and furans have been found in the effluents from mills without any chlorine bleaching. The authors show that post-consumer waste paper may contain significant concentrations of chlorinated dioxins and furans, which could originate in pentachlorophenol contamination of the original wood furnish, printing inks and /or the ambient surroundings.

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Life-Cycle Assessment: Proceed with Caution, by Wilfred A. Cote. International Paper (2 Manhattanville Rd., Purchase, NY 10577, 914/397-1500),1992. This 8-page pamphlet traces the history of the life-cycle concept, which was developed in the 1970s for energy audits and adapted in 1990 by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) for more complex analyses. Life-cycle assessment has three phases, of which the first is currently getting the most attention: life-cycle inventory, life-cycle impact and improvement analyses. Because the method is so new and has become so popular, it has been misused, for instance by Franklin Associates in its studies of paper and plastic products. Standards, regulations and guidelines are being drawn up to prevent abuse. The authors refer to 1991 articles from Consumer Reports (on diapers) and Garbage (on life-cycle analysis).

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"Making Paper with Less Fresh Water," by Joe C. Steelhammer and Barbara Wortley. PIMA Magazine, Sept. 1992, p. 50-51. It takes about 560 tons of water to make one ton of paper. Of this, only 50-250 tons are fresh water brought in from outside; the rest is recycled. About 66% of the total is used for process water, the rest for cooling and boilers. Bleached fine paper mills use almost three times as much fresh water as unbleached kraft mills, because of quality requirements.

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Paper Mills and Museums Around the World: A Personal Account, 1976-1991, by Elaine Koretsky. Carriage House Press, 8 Evans Rd., Brookline, MA 02146-2116 (no date). 7 unnumbered leaves. Printed in a limited edition of 100, with handmade cover papers (the author is a professional hand papermaker), bound with the traditional four-hole Japanese binding. One sheet of Nepalese handmade paper follows the cover sheet.

The author has traveled to 23 countries since 1976 to observe and document traditional methods of hand papermaking where they are still being used, carrying on the work of Dard Hunter in this respect, and focussing on areas where he did not travel. This book briefly describes 28 mills or villages, as well as several places where they used to make paper but do so no longer, and 17 paper museums.

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URL: http://cool.conservation-us.org/byorg/abbey/ap/ap06/ap06-3/ap06-315.html
Timestamp: Sunday, 03-Mar-2013 21:42:19 PST
Retrieved: Friday, 17-Nov-2017 20:55:51 GMT