Alkaline Paper Advocate

Volume 1, Number 5
Nov 1993


Literature

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Finch Pruyn, a small sulphite mill in Glens Falls, New York, has been the subject of articles in Paper Age, American Papermaker and PIMA Magazine. Two of the articles are based on interviews with CEO Richard Carota, who in 1993 received the Paper Industry Management Association's Executive of the Year award. Finch Pruyn has had a long and eventful history, and Mr. Carota tells a good story, so these articles can be recommended. Two developments are worth noting: how Finch Pruyn built its own PCC production facility in 1982-83, in the days before suppliers contracted to build and operate them for you; and how in 1971 or so Mr. Carota tamed the cantankerous new continuous digester and brought order to the problem-riddled pulp mill. The references are:

  1. "Inside Finch, Pruyn: An Interview with President Richard Carota." Paper Age, March 1989 14 pp.]. Carota says, 'When we switched to alkaline papermaking in 1982, one of our primary objectives was to get away from the limited shelf life of acid papers." They were able to achieve a filler level of 21 % with clay before the switch, and pushed their filler level up to 26% when they started using calcium carbonate.
  2. "Old Concepts have New Meaning with On-Site PCC Facilities," by William C. Schultz. American Papermaker, May 1989: 35-36. The author was instrumental in gathering information and formulating plans for the mill's on-site PCC facility. He relates how it was planned and built.
  3. "PIMA Honors Richard Carota." PIMA Magazine, Aug. 1993, p. 26-28, 30. This is the article with the story of how order was brought to the pulp mill. (3A9.9)

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"Various Causes for the Darkening of Paper," by H.S. (Doug) Dugal and Salman Aziz. Progress in Paper Recycling, Feb. 1993, p. 88. This is a neat little summary, by two experts from Integrated Paper Services in Appleton, of the very complex phenomenon of paper darkening. Some factors: wave length of light (under 340 nm, paper yellows; over that, it bleaches); oxidation of cellulose and hemicelluloses, which causes them to absorb light; extractives (substances that can be dissolved out); lignin and lignin products (including quinones and ferulic acid); and the presence of fines, transitional metal ions, sizing agents, coatings, and optical brighteners. And of course, paper containing mechanical pulp will darken if recycled under alkaline conditions, unless it is pulped with hydrogen peroxide, then treated with a reducing agent. The authors are at Integrated Paper Services in Appleton, WI; Progress in Paper Recycling is also in Appleton (telephone 414/832-9101). (3B1.4)

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A paper about prevention of cellulose deterioration during ozone bleaching is summarized in Pulp & Paper Canada 94:11 (1993), p. 92. The title is not given, but the authors are C. Chirat, M.T. Viardin and D. Lachenal, and it was published in a recent issue of Paperi ja Puu. Tying up metal ions by pretreatment with EDTA at high temperature (90¡ C) dramatically enhanced delignification without any adverse effect on the cellulose. That was at low consistency (less pulp per volume of water). At high consistency, oxalic acid also helped. For more information, call the editorial offices of Pulp & Paper Canada, phone 514/339-1399 or 800/339-1327; fax 514/339-1396. (3B1.5)

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"Chelant Optimization in De-Inking Formulation," by I. Mathur. Pulp & Paper Canada 94:10 (1993), p.55-60. Concentrations of 14 metals in waste paper furnish, the tap water used, and the deinking chemicals were determined, and the effect of DTPA on brightness was observed when sodium silicate was used for ink removal. When DTPA was optimized, sodium silicate was found to be unnecessary, as long as pH was kept constant. (3B1.5)

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"Rosin Soap Sizing with Ferric and Ferrous Ions as Mordants," by Jinfeng Zhuang and Christopher J. Biermann. Tappi Journal, Dec. 1993, p. 141-147. Iron ions act as effective mordants, much better than alum, in sizing of mechanical pulp. They have little effect in sizing of bleached pulps, however. (3B1.5)

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"A Non-Chlorine Repulping Aide for Wet Strength Resin Destruction," by P.C. Kapadia, H.G. Tessier and S. Langlois. Paper presented at 79th Annual Meeting, CPPA Technical Section, 26-29 Jan. 1993. Preprints A, pp. A61-A66. Abstract # 3678 in Paper and Board Abstracts (PBA) describes DuPont's investigations of potassium peroxymonosulphate (PPMS) as a as a non-chlorine pulping aid. (3B1.8)

*

Conference Proceedings, FRC 10th Fundamental Research Symposium: Products of Papermaking. Oxford University, 20-24 September, 1993. £175 from Pira, 3 vols. Some of the papers in the two volumes published so far are:

"Response of Paper Properties to Changes in Moisture Content and Temperature," by L. Salmén

"Physical Aging and Glass Transition: Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Paper and Board," by Z.V. Padanyi

"The Effect of Recycling on the Fines' Contribution to Selected Paper Properties," by J.F. Waterhouse et al.

"The Impact of Modern Papermaking on Aspects of Permanence and Paper Conservation," by D.J. Priest et al. (3B1.8)

*

"Overview of Polymeric Additives at the Size Press," by R. Nigel Jopson. Paper presented at Raw Material Developments in the Paper and Board Industry, a Pira conference held 9 Mar. 1993 at Leatherhead, UK. Paper 08, 22 pp. Abstract 3483 in Paper & Board Abstractssays that the size press in the middle of the paper machine dryer sections allows the economic use of expensive and sophisticated chemistry for surface modification. The paper describes the chemistries and raw materials used. A good clear summary of size press additives, with diagrams and bibliography. (3B1.8)

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"The Environmental Benefits of Modern Developments in Dyestuffs and OBAs," by A.C. Jackson. Paper presented at Chemistry of Papermaking Conference, 27-28 Jan. 1993 at Wilmslow, UK. Paper 05, 12 pp. (PBA Abstract 2616, 1993) "OBAs" are optical brightening agents, also called fluorescent brighteners or whiteners. The author discusses new paper dyes and OBAs that do not release chemical pollutants into the environment. (3B1.8)

*

"Fluorescent Whiteners--New Discoveries Regarding Their Properties and Behaviour in Paper," by F. Muller, D. Loewe and B. Hunke. Pap. South. Afr. vol. 13, #3-4, Apr. 1993, pp. 4, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 22. The article reviews the properties and behavior of whitening agents, methods of applying them (in stock, size press or coating), their influence on lightfastness and fastness to bleeding. Research has not shown that they are noxious or toxic. [One reason they are not used in the U.S. as much as they are in Europe is that paper with brighteners is not used here for food packaging. -Ed.] (3B1.8)

*

"Optical Brightening Aids, Chemistry and Application," by H. Weaver. Pap. South. Afr. v. 13, #3-4, Apr. 1993, p. 30. Technical background. Some types are better suited for alkaline papermaking. (3B1.8)

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"Postage Stamps with Recycled Content." Recycled Paper News, Nov./Dec. 1993, p. 5. Four companies make stamp paper: Fletcher, Glatfelter, Cross Pointe's Miami Mill, and Westvaco. Some are coated, some are uncoated, but only Miami makes stamp paper with recycled content. (3B2.116)

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"Dimensional Stability and Curl," by K. Humphrey. Paper presented at Pira conference, Advances in Paper Finishing Technology, 25 Nov. 1992. 41 pp. (PBA abstract 2746, 1993.) Mechanically-, thermally- and moisture-induced curl are analyzed, and five causes of curl are examined: Moisture expansivity, fiber swell, fiber structure, moisture hysteresis and network effects. The three main factors in dimensional instability are extent of fiber swell, fiber orientation and sheet density. (3B2.38)

*

"The Use of Cure Promoters in Alkaline Sizing," by I. Thorn, P.J. Dart, and S.D. Main. Pap. Technol.34 #1, Jan-Feb. 1993, pp. 41-45. (PBA abstract 3090) Lack of off-dryer sizing is sometimes a problem with paper sized with AKD. It has been largely overcome by use of wet-end polymer additives as cure promoters. EKA Nobel studied the effect of six cure promoters on paper made with 100% mixed waste fiber and were not able to identify the mechanism but did determine that it was not a function of improved fines retention or of AKD distribution between fiber and fines. (3B3.4)

*

"ASA--Friend or Foe?" by S. Jenkins. Paper presented at Pira's Chemistry of Papermaking Conference , 27-28 Jan. 1993 at Wilmslow. Paper 09, 8 pp. (PBA abstract 2618) Alkenyl succinic anhydride (ASA) is not widely used in Europe. This paper considers its benefits and problems. (3B3.4)

*

"The Alkaline Revolution: Improved Publishing and Printing Papers Through the Use of Fillers," by C.A. Skrocki et al. (all of Minerals Technologies Inc.). Paper presented at Pulp & Paper Week's6th Publishing & Printing Papers Conference, Toronto, Sept. 20-21. Minerals Technologies (formerly a division of Pfizer) keeps good track of trends in alkaline papermaking, because they are a major supplier of onsite plants for making carbonate fillers and coatings. The graphs in this paper show that North American onsite PCC plants increased from three in 1986 to 35 in 1992, and to 37 in 1993. Coated and uncoated papers have converted to alkaline at different rates. Coated freesheet was 50% alkaline in 1986, and 84% in 1992. Uncoated freesheet was only 12% alkaline in 1986, and is now about 75%. The last six pages of this paper describe the use of acid-tolerant PCC with groundwood and newsprint grades, both coated and uncoated. There are a number of graphs to illustrate the effect of the acid-tolerant PCC on properties of these papers. 3B3.41

*

"Partial Lumen Loading," by S.R. Middleton and A.M. Scallan. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. 8 #1, Apr. 1993, pp. 204-207, 231. (PBA abstract 3902) Papermakers usually try to get as much carbonate filler into the paper as possible, but two things put a limit on the level they can achieve: the particles are so small they tend to drain out with the water on the machine, and when they are retained they naturally attach to the outer surface of the fiber, interfering with fiber bonding, which reduces paper strength. Putting the filler inside the fiber solves both these problems, without sacrificing opacity or brightness. Up to 50% of the filler can be loaded by the simple method described, which involves prolonged agitation of the fibers with a conventional level of filler added. (3B3.44)

*

"The Role of Alum in Historical Papermaking," by Irene Brückle. Abbey Newsletter, 17 #4, Sept. 1993, p. 53-57. 25 references, 32 notes. From antiquity until the 19th century, "alum" meant aluminum potassium sulphate, which was mined in rock form or extracted with hot water. It has been usedin papermaking (at least in Europe) since the beginning. It was used to harden gelatin size and make it less absorbent from the 1500s onward; for making watercolor papers less absorbent; and for other uses. In the 19th century, a cheaper and stronger kind of alum came into use: aluminum sulphate, or papermakers' alum. Alum has been used in an increasing percentage of papers since the 16th century. The author reports some original research on artificial aging of gelatin-alum sized papers, at different concentrations of alum. Changes in color and tensile energy absorption were noted. The alum discolored the paper towards greyish-brown, and decreased its strength. (3B3.45)

*

"Restoring Bonding Strength to Recycled Fibres," by J.L. Minor, C.T. Scott and R.H. Atalla. Paper presented at 1993 TAPPI Recycling Symposium held 28 Feb.-4 Mar. 1993 in New Orleans. p. 379-385 in the preprints. (PBA abstract 3666) During paper recycling, properties associated with inter-fiber bonding, e.g. tensile strength and energy absorption, are decreased. To compensate, the papermaker may use mechanical treatment, chemical additives, fractionation, blending, chemical treatments or papermaking modifications. (3B3.6)

*

"Paper Recycling: Responding to the Mandate," by Daniel Mulligan. ASTM Standardization News, Aug. 1993, p. 40-45. If there is anyplace in the U.S. where consensus on standards for recycling can be reached, it is the ASTM, where achievement of consensus among all interested parties is facilitated through democratic debate and voting. But disagreement on the topic of recycling is so great, and the various interests are so strong, that it has taken three years of "ardous deliberation," as Mulligan puts it, for Subcommittee D06.40 on Recycled Paper to agree on the terminology to use for writing standards. (Most recycling organizations, agencies and businesses, had already devised their own separate terminologies.) This article summarizes the major processes and issues in the recycling process, which will be the focus of the Subcommittee's attention in the future. (3B3.6)

*

"Mill on a Barge?" Paper v. 218 #5, May 1993, p. 6. (PBA abstract 2602) A Russian paper industry association has announced plans to build a CTMP pulp mill on five floating platforms, with a closed water supply and biological aeration, so that it could be towed to forests in the underdeveloped northern and far eastern regions, where the trees are. About $100 million in funding is sought from European investors. (3B3.8)

*

"On the Structure and Reactivity of Residual Lignin in Kraft Pulp Fibers," by Goran Gellerstedt and E.L. Lindfors. Paper presented at the International Pulp Bleaching Conference 1991 held 11-14 June 1991 in Stockholm, vol. 1, pp. 78-88. The PBA abstract (#2125, 1992) says, "Work is reported by the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology and STFI on the reactions and structural features of lignin which have a determining role in lignin dissolution. It is concluded that oxidation rections leading to introduction of carboxyl groups are probably the most important. Residual lignin, after bleaching, retains all the structural features of a lignin, but dissolved lignin has undergone comprehensive chemical changes." The first author is out of reprints of this paper. Publication information for the preprints is given as: Stockholm, Sweden: SPCI, 1991, 656 pp, 3 vols, SEK300.00 (676.023.1)(9324). (3B3.86)

*

"Investigation of the Residual Lignin in Chemical Pulps: Part 1: Enzymatic Hydrolysis of the Pulps and Fractionation of the Products," by B. Hortling, M. Ranua and J. Sundquist. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. v. 5 #1, Mar. 1990, pp. 33-37. (PBA abstract 2380, 1990) Residual lignin samples from kraft pulps delignified to different levels (kappa 93-14) were analyzed by five different methods; the difficulty of removing residual lignin from pulps may be due partly to insoluble fractions of the residual lignin and/or to strong bonds between lignin and carbohydrates in the pulp, rather than to molecular mass. (3B3.86)

*

"The Effluent-Free Kraft Pulp Mill: Myth or Reality?" by Subhash Chandra. Papermaker, Nov. 1993, p. 40-43. The answer to the question in the title is that it is possible but not easy to have a closed-cycle bleached pulp mill, even though research began in the 1960s and continues today. Methods used by the following mills are described: SAPPI in Ngowdwana, South Africa; Selenghinsky on Lake Baikal (in Russia, close to the Mongolian border); Louisiana-Pacific in Chetwynd, B.C. (a mechanical, not a kraft pulp mill); and Millar Western in Meadow Lake, Saskatchewan (see related news item). (3B3.9)

*

"Purification of CTMP Effluent by Combined Anaerobic and Water Hyacinth Treatment," by Y-G. Ruan and G-L Liu. Appita v. 46 #3, May 1993, pp. 187-190. (PBAabstract 4507) Thermomechanical pulp, chemimechanical pulp and chemi-thermomechanical pulp (TMP, CMP and CTMP) are high-yield processes with particular effluent problems. The Chinese Academy of Forestry found that anaerobic treatment of effluent, followed by water hyacinth treatment significantly reduced both chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand in the effluent. (3B3.9)

*

"Environmentalists Attack Mills' Undetectable Dioxin," by David F. Kern. Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, Sept. 20, 1993. The EPA is reevaluating dioxin's effect on humans and should complete its work by September 1994. Soon it is expected to reduce the amount of allowable dioxin in effluent, though it is not expected to order mills to abandon the use of chlorine altogether. Georgia-Pacific's Ashdown and Crosset pulp mills are among those under attack by environmentalists, who do not believe that the dioxin in their effluent is really at undetectable levels. Mark Floegel of Greenpeace thinks the EPA is not setting its own standards, but is being dictated to by the industry; nevertheless, he has apparently not tested the water himself, or had it tested, so that he can see for himself. (3B3.91)

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"The Crusade Against Chlorine," by I. Amato. Science261 (5118): 152 (1993). Reports by the Chlorine Institute, CanTox Inc., and university scientists claim that hazards caused by chlorine use do not justify the enormous expense that a ban would cause; concern is expressed that the many safe chlorinated compounds will be banned without risk assessment. (from Tappi Journal, Sept. 1993, p. 222) (3B3.91)

*

[Note--Pira, the Printing Industry Research Association, is able to supply most of the publications that appear in its Paper and Board Abstracts (PBA), some of which are abstracted above. The charge is $9 per article for nonmembers of Pira. The request must be made on a special form or a copy of it; payment may be made by credit card. The address is: Document Delivery Service, Information Centre; Pira International; Randalls Road; Leatherhead; Surrey KT22 7RU; UK; Fax: 011 44 372 360104.] (5B5)

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