Alkaline
Paper Advocate

Volume 9, Number 4
Dec 1996


Literature

[Note: The classification number that follows each entry is an aid to indexing and finding citations by subject. Addresses of publishers like TAPPI , IPST or Pira can be found in the list of Useful Addresses sent out to each subscriber. However, in this issue, most abstract numbers and the names of the abstracting journals have been omitted due to time pressures. To find out how to get a copy of a given paper, call the Abbey Publications office.]

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"Adsorption of Moisture by Papers. (1). Attainment of Equilibrium at Various Humidity Levels," by A.R.K. Eusufzai et al. SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, ESPRI Research Reports, no. 91:VIII (Syracuse, NY): 115 (Oct. 1, 1989).

This is one of a large number of early research reports from SUNY Syracuse that were entered into the database PaperChem last year.

Five different papers were studied at five different constant relative humidities, 25%-90%. The equilibrium moisture content (emc) of two papers increased up to 65% RH, then tended to level off. The three heavier papers went on gaining moisture beyond 65%. No sample needed more than 45 minutes to reach its emc at any humidity. Observed stress decay curves are discussed. (2C1.3)

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"Gaseous Phase Deacidification of Deteriorated Book Papers by Dry Ammonia-Ethylene Oxide Process," by T. Okayama, et al. 1996 (63rd) Pulp and Paper Research Conference, Tokyo, 20-21 June 1996,pp. 588-61. Tokyo, Japan: Japan TAPPI, 1996. 198 pp. (In Japanese)

Acidic paper sheets are permeated with ammonia and ethylene oxide gases followed by gaseous phase deacidification treatment to generate ethanolamines in the paper. Neutral pH values were still maintained following accelerated aging for 4 weeks at 105° C, and the mechanical properties of folding endurance and tear strength were preserved.

Because the ammonia is used in the dry form, there is no conflict with the patented ammonia/EtO method used by Book Preservation Associates. (2D5.2)

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"Papierzerfall stoppen: Unvorstellbare Schätze in der Deutschen Bücherei in Leipzig sind vom Zerfall bedroht" (Stop Paper Degradation: Incredible treasures in the German Book Center of Leipzig are Threatened by Deterioration). Papermacher 46, no. 6: 77.

Nearly 70% of the 9 million or so books and other documents in the archives of the Deutsche Bücherei in Leipzig are in danger of being lost to posterity through paper degradation. Twenty-two librarians, bookbinders and document restorers are treating 22,000 pages a year manually. A bulk deacidification based on the Battelle process is being tried out. (3A3.3)

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"£10,000 Will Buy One Facsimile Copy of 14th-Century Chaucer Manuscript," by T. Ulrick. Printing World (Tonbridge, UK) 254, no. 9:4 (May 27, 1996).

Anthony Cains prepared the manuscript for reproduction by conserving and rebinding it; his report of the procedure is summarized in The Ellesmere Chaucer: Essays in Interpretation, edited by Martin Stevens and Daniel Woodward (Huntington Library and Yushodo Co., Ltd., San Marino and Tokyo, 1995).

Japanese printer Mizuno Printech produced the 480-page facsimile on Exhibition Fine Art Cartridge paper at a resolution of 600 dpi, with gold foil blocking. The finished product was bound in oaken boards with leather spine by BookLab in Austin, Texas. (3A5.1)

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"A New Test for Toner Adhesion," by G.L. Batten and P.J. Kelekto. 1996 Papermakers Conference, Philadelphia, 24-27 Mar., pp. 91-97 (Atlanta: TAPPI Press, 1996, 573 pp., $145.85) ISBN 0-89852-659-0.

The authors present a test method for the quantification of toner adhesion, either reprographic or laser, on any paper, and methods to improve toner adhesion are examined. The test method uses tape to lift the image in a controlled way. (3A9.2)

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Silver Tarnishing by Paper and Paperboard. TAPPI Test Method T 444 om-96 (Atlanta, GA): 3 p. (July 18, 1996).

This testing method, an "official method" (om) revised in 1996, describes a procedure for identifying papers and paperboards that will stain or tarnish silver or other metallic surfaces. ASTM D 2043 is a related method.

ISO is now formulating a standard for "archival board" that will not degrade papers stored next to it. This standard may overlap in function with the TAPPI test method. (3A9.7)

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"Fundamental Research Concerning Tear Resistance of Pulps and Papers. III. Influence of Chemical and Physicochemical Parameters," by A. Cochaux, A. D'Aveni and A. Robert. Cellul. Chem. Technol. vol. 29 #5, Sept.-Oct. 1995, p. 631-642. (In French)

The tear index depends upon both physical and chemical characteristics. There was no direct relation between the average degree of polymerization based on viscosity over a reasonable range and the tear index. The tear index is affected by a) the amount of lignin, which is hydrophobic; and b) hydration and transformation of weak points into dislocation areas. (3A9.7)

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"Aging of Book Paper," by Y.H. Xu. Pap. Pap. Making no. 2: 51-52 (March 1995). In Chinese.

Ancient Chinese books have stayed in good condition for thousands of years, but modern books have deteriorated quite rapidly. The author reviews the relationship of all aspects of the papermaking process, including pulping, bleaching, sizing, chemical additives, and storage environments, and strategies are provided for prolonging book life. (3B1.1)

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"Alkaline Hydrolysis of Cellulose. Part I: Without Chemical Additives," by A. Cochaux et al. Rev. ATIP v. 50, No. 4, 1996, p. 148-156.

Cellulose hydrolysis in an alkaline buffer is governed by two things: the peeling reaction and the breakage of intramolecular glucosidic links of the cellulose. The results are 1) a decrease in molecular weights and 2) a decrease in the weight of the sample. Four factors in alkaline hydrolysis were examined: temperature, treatment duration, buffer alkalinity, and addition of anthraquinone. (3B1.2)

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"Factors Affecting Permanence. (1). Environmental Conditions for Accelerated Aging," by R. Cardwell, W. Metzer and P. Luner. SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, ESPRI Research Reports, no. 45:V (Syracuse, NY): 20-21 (September 8, 1967).

Cycling paper between high and low temperature accelerates the drop in strength (fold, tear, rupture load, burst, Young's modulus) compared with continuous aging for a corresponding length of time, The presence of moisture accelerates aging to a very large extent. Springwood fibers aged faster than summerwood fibers. Restraint of the sheets during drying made no difference in the speed of aging. Aged sheets that are wetted and then redried regained a considerable percentage of the strength lost during aging.

This was a pioneering study of the effect of cycling temperature and RH on paper. Note the early date (1967). This line of work has been continued at the Library of Congress. (3B1.21)

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"Studies on Paper Permanence. (1). Evaluation of a Fold Test Procedure," by R. Cardwell, L. Lyon and P. Luner. SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, ESPRI Research Reports, no. 53:IV (Syracuse, NY): 29 (March 1, 1971).

This is a comprehensive analysis of the factors affecting the fold test. A close linear correlation between the logarithm of test load and fold enables one to calculate fold values at loads otherwise impracticable or unreliable. Only 20 fold tests are required to find the basic data needed. No significant information is lost when the suggested procedure is used in place of the conventional test. (3B1.26)

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"The Effect of Ageing of Waste Paper on the Deinking Efficiency," by P.I. Lunabba, A.M. Pettersson and I.V. Eriksson. 5th International Conference on new Available Techniques. World Pulp and Paper Week, Stockholm, Sweden, 4-7 June 1996, Part I, p. 179-188. (Stockholm: SPCI, 1996. 1153 pp., 2 vols.

The authors wanted to find out how old newspapers could be, before problems arose in the deinking process. When newsprint was new, all deinking processes worked about the same. After 7 to 10 months of aging, however, the best deinking chemicals reduced final brightness by only 3 to 4 units. The poorest chemicals reduced final brightness by twice as many units. Deinking efficiency fell after one month of aging, with recycled newsprint. (3B1.4)

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"Study on the Neutral and Alkaline Sizing of [Pulp Using] Cationic Emulsified Wax Size," by M. Lin et al. China Pulp Pap. 15, no. 3: 15-20 (May 1996). (In Chinese, with English summary)

In experiments that compared the sizing performance of a cationic emulsified wax size (CEWS) vs. a conventional rosin acid sizing system, it was shown that the CEWS can be used for sizing at pH 5.5-10.0. The CEWS was 2.5 times more efficient than the rosin size. Total retention and fines retention also increased by 21.98 and 48.31%, respectively, compared to the rosin size. (3B3.4)

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"Overview of Talc Usage as Paper Filler," by P.E. Valero and J.E. Holton. 1995 Dyes, Fillers and Pigments Short Course, Chicago, 26-28 Apr. 1995, pp. 111-115.

High filler levels are possible with talc, which preserves internal strength, reduces dye and sizing demand, enhances machine runnability and productivity, and improves water resistance particularly for rotogravure printing. (3B3.44)

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"Passing the Acid Test," by Thomas J. Kraner. Publishers Weekly, Aug. 19, 1996, p. 28-29. The author summarizes a study done in late 1995 by Jaakko Poyry Consulting on the paper-buying plans of 65 publishers. He also reports comments made by Barbara Goldsmith (who campaigned successfully for alkaline paper five years ago with U.S. book publishers), Jim Thompson (of Thompson Avant International, a consulting and marketing firm) and Ellen McCrady (editor of the Alkaline Paper Advocate), on the papers being used for book publishing. He concludes, in short, that alkaline paper is being used for the great majority of books published in this country, but recycled paper has become less popular because of its cost. (3B3.6)

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"Wood Supply's Stunted Growth," by B. Simon and C. Brown-Humes. Financ. Times #32,920, 28 Feb. 1996, p. 14. (PBA Abstract 3269, 1996)

Several European and North American chief executives met privately during the Canadian Pulp & Paper Association conference in Montreal in January 1996 to discuss fiber supply, which is now a mainstream industry concern. The authors think it may have been behind the rise in paper prices in 1994-95. Mills have been importing pulp logs from Chile and Alaska, or buying up sawmills and cutting rights to their surrounding forests. (3B3.7)

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"Bleaching with Dimethyldioxirane: A Review of Its Fundamentals," by J. Bouchard, J. Chen and D.S. Argyropoulos (Paprican). Paper presented at the ACS meeting in New Orleans March 24-29, 1996. A novel class of cyclic peroxides, namely dioxiranes, has been identified for chemical pulp bleaching as part of a TCF (totally chlorine-free) sequence. It delignifies kraft pulps without affecting the strength properties. (3B3.8)

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A. Ahlstrom Oy, a Finnish company, has patented a new bleaching method that will make it easier to close up the system in mills making totally chlorine free pulp. It involves an extra step in pulping: cooking the pulp at about 100°C and pH 3 to 4 for about an hour, to remove hexene uronic acid by acid hydrolysis. This reduces the use of bleaching chemicals by up to 40%, and makes chelation unnecessary. (The effect on the cellulose is not reported.)

This development is reported in two Finnish-language articles abstracted in Paperbase Abstracts:

"New Bleaching Stage Revealed, by M. Korpivaara. Pap. Puu v. 78 no. 4, Apr. 1996, p. 151-152. (Abstract 6776, 1996)

"Hydrolysis Halves Bleaching Chemical Consumption," by K. Ojanpera. Tek. Talous no. 22, 30 May 1996, p. 8. (Abstract 6789, 1996) (3B3.83)

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"Where are All the Environmentalists?" by Ed Shoener. Quality Systems Update, June 1996, p. 19.

ISO's Technical Committee 207 has been working for three years on a set of standards for environmental management-its 14000 series-but there has been little involvement from environmental groups and nongovernmental organizations. These groups could be organizing discussions, holding meetings around the U.S., and involving interested parties, so that the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to Technical Committee 207 could be getting some feedback from the field. The author would probably like to hear from supporters of this type of action. His address is National Institute for Environmental Renewal, 1300 Old Plank Rd., Mayfield, PA 18433 (717/282-0302, fax 282-3381, e-mail schoener@epix.net). (3B3.93)

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"Carl David Ekman-Pioneer. Part I," by B. Steenberg. Nord. Pappershistorisk Tidskr. v.23 #4, 1995, pp. 9-16 (In Swedish. PBA Abstract 4839, 1996)

Ekman was a chemist (1845-1904) who was the first to produce sulphite pulp industrially, in 1874 at the Bergvik pulp mill. The first steps in lab work and research into pulp production by Ekman, and his patent battles with the German Mitscherlich brothers, are described. (3B4)

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Nützliche Mittheilungen für Papier-Fabrikanten, enthaltend eine vollständige Anweisung zur Bleichung des rohen Stoffes, so wie der Bereitung der Chlorine usw. und des Geheimnisses Papier in der masse zu leimen. Mit e. Lithogr., 15 fig. enth./von e. in Dt. sich aufhaltenden Engländer-Nachdr. [d.Ausg.] Heilbronn 1839. Basel: Basler Papiermühle, 1992. [2] Bl., 20 S., 1 Faltbl.; 21 cm. Announced in IPH, v.6 #1, 1996, p. 24. This publication is in the Deutschen Buch- und Schriftmuseum der Deutschen Bücherei Leipzig.

This is a recent reprint of a little 20-page book originally printed in 1839, explaining how to bleach paper with chlorine and size with alum and rosin. (3B4)

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