JAIC 1990, Volume 29, Number 2, Article 2 (pp. 117 to 131)
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 1990, Volume 29, Number 2, Article 2 (pp. 117 to 131)

CHEMICAL WATERMARKING OF PAPER

STEPHANIE WATKINS


ABSTRACT—An investigation of 20th-century Customark chemical watermarks beginning with methods of identification is reported. Experimentation with various conservation treatment steps on these materials gave conflicting results. Erasers seemed not to affect the watermark. Organic chemicals quickly altered the chemical watermark visually, yet under ultraviolet examination the mark appeared unaltered. Conversely, exposure to other solutions left the watermark visually undisturbed yet indistinct under ultraviolet illumination. It is hypothesized that component parts of the chemical watermark and perhaps paper brighteners, fillers, and/or sizing agents were moved by treatment methods, altering the mark.

Article Sections:

1. INTRODUCTION
2. SAMPLES
3. MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION
4. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES
5. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MATERIAL
6. SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
7. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
8. SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
9. CONCLUSIONS
a: Notes , Materials , References , Author Information
Entire Article

Copyright 1990 American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works