PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ALBUMEN PHOTOGRAPHS
TIMOTHY VITALE, & PAUL MESSIER
Alderton, G., W. H.Ward, and H. L.Fevold. 1946. Identification of the bacteria-inhibiting, iron-binding protein of egg white conalbumin. Archives of Biochemistry11: 9–13.
Benesch, R., and R. E.Benesch. 1948. Ampero-metric titration of sulfhydryl groups in amino acids and proteins. Archives of Biochemistry19: 35–45.
Bergquist, D. H.1986. Egg dehydration. In Egg science and technology, 3d ed.Westport, Conn.: AVI Publishing Co.285–323.
Berlin, E., P. G.Kliman, and M. J.Pallansch. 1970. Changes in state of water in proteinaceous systems. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science31(4): 488–94.
Bienkiewicz, K. J.1990. Leather—water: A system?Journal of the American Leather Chemistry Association85(10): 305–25.
Bull, H. B.1944. Adsorption of water vapor by proteins. Journal of the American Chemistry Society66: 1499–507.
Calhoun, J., and A.Leister. 1959. Effect of gelatin layers on the dimensional stability of photographic film. Photographic Science and Engineering3: 8–17.
Clovin, R. J.1964. Denaturation: A requiem. In Proteins and their reactions. Westport, Conn.: AVI Publishing Co.69–83.
Cunningham, F. E.1976. Properties of egg white drainage. Poultry Science55: 738–43.
Daniels, V., and L. E.Fleming. 1988. Unpublished. London: British Museum, Conservation Science Division.
Feeney, R. E.1964. Egg proteins. In Proteins and their reactions. Westport, Conn.: AVI Publishing Co.209–24.
Green, C. J.1983. Curl, expansivity and dimensional stability. In Handbook of physical and mechanical testing of paper and paperboard. 2: 415–43.
Harrington, W. F., and P. F.VonHippel. 1961. The structure of collagen and gelatin. In Advances in protein chemistry, vol. 16, ed.C. B.Anfinsen et al. New York: Academic Press.
Joly, M.1955. Recent studies on the reversible denaturation of proteins. In Progress in biophysics and biophysical chemistry, vol. 5, ed.J.A.V.Butler and J. T.Randall. London: Pergamon Press. 169–221.
Jones, R. T.1964. The structure of proteins. In Proteins and their reactions. Westport, Conn.: AVI Publishing Co.33–56.
Karpowitz, A.1989. In-plane deformations of films of size on paintings in the glass transition region. Studies in Conservation34: 67–74.
Kauzmann, W., and R. B.Simpson. 1953. The kinetics of protein denaturation. Journal of the American Chemical Society75: 5139–52.
Kinsella, J. E.1976. Functional properties of proteins in foods: A survey. In CRC critical reviews in food technology. Cleveland: CRC Press. 219–80.
Koltz, I. M.1953. Protein interactions. In The proteins: Chemistry, biological activity and methods, vol. 1, pt. b. New York: Academic Press. 727–806.
KuntzJr., I. D., and W.Kauzmann. 1974. Hydration of proteins and polypeptides. In Advances in protein chemistry, vol. 28, ed.C. B.Anfinsen et al. New York: Academic Press.
MacDonnell, L. R., R. E.Feeney, H. L.Hanson, A.Campbell, and T. F.Sugihara. 1955. The functional properties of the egg white proteins. Food Technology9(Feb.): 49–53.
MacDonnell, L. R., H. L.Hanson, R. B.Silva, H.Lineweaver, and R. E.Feeney. 1950. Shear—not pressure—harms egg white. Food Industries22(2): 85–88.
Mecklenburg, M. F.1988. The effects of atmospheric moisture on the mechanical properties of collagen under equilibrium conditions. AIC preprints.American Institute for Conservation 16th annual meeting, New Orleans. Washington, D.C.: AIC. 231–44.
Mecklenburg, M. F.1991. Some mechanical and physical properties of gilding gesso. In Gilded wood, ed.D.Bigelow. Madison, Conn.: Sound View Press. 163–70.
Messier, P.1991. Work in progress: An analysis of the effect of water on the cracking of albumen photographs. In Topics in photographic preservation, vol. 4. Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Conservation Photographic Materials Group. 170–78.
Messier, P., and T.Vitale. 1993. Cracking in albumen photographs: An ESEM investigation. Journal of Microscopy Research and Technique25: 374–83.
Messier, P., and T.Vitale. 1994. Effects of aqueous treatment on albumen photographs. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation33: 257–78.
Munson, D.1993. Personal communication. Chicago Albumen Works, Housatonic, Mass.
Powrie, W. D., and S.Nakai. 1986. The chemistry of eggs and egg products. In Egg science and technology, 3d ed.Westport, Conn: AVI Publishing Co.97–139.
Putnam, F. W.1953. Protein denaturation. In The proteins: Chemistry, biological activity and methods, vol. 1, pt. b. New York: Academic Press. 807–92.
Rance, H. F.1954. Effects of water removal on sheet properties: The water evaporation phase. Tappi37(12): 640–52.
Reilly, J.1980. The albumen and salted paper book. Rochester: Light Impression Corporation.
Smith, S. F.1950. Dried-in strains in paper sheets and the relation to curling, cockling and other phenomena. Paper-Maker and British Paper Trade Journal. 119: 185–92.
Stadelman, W. J., and O. J.Cotterill. 1986. Egg science and technology, 3d ed.Westport, Conn.: AVI Publishing Co.
Sugarman, J. E., and T. J.Vitale. 1992. Observations on the drying of paper: Five drying methods and the drying process. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation31: 175–97.
Timasheff, S. N.1964. The nature of interactions in proteins derived from milk. In Proteins and their reactions. Westport, Conn.: AVI Publishing Co.179–208.
Towler, J.1864. The silver sunbeam: A practical and theoretical text book on sun drawing and photographic printing. New York: J. H. Ladd.
VanKleef, F.1986. Thermally induced protein gelation: Gelation and rheological characterization of highly concentrated ovalbumin and soybean protein gels. Biopolymers25: 31–59.
Vitale, T. J.1992a. Effects of drying on the mechanical properties of paper and their relationship to the treatment of paper. In Materials issues in art and archaeology, III, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 267, ed.P. B.Vandiver et al. Pittsburgh: Materials Research Society. 429–45.
Vitale, T. J.1992b. Effects of water on the mechanical properties of paper and their relationship to the treatment of paper. In Materials issues in art and archaeology, III, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 267, ed.P. B.Vandiver et al. Pittsburgh: Materials Research Society. 397–427.
vonEndt, D. W., and M. T.Baker. 1991. The chemistry of filled animal glue systems. In Gilded wood, ed.D.Bigelow. Madison, Conn.: Sound View Press. 155–62.
Wall, J. S.1964. Cereal proteins. In Proteins and their reactions. Westport, Conn.: AVI Publishing Co.315–41.
Windle, J. J., A. K.Wiersema, J.R.Clark, and R. E.Feeney. 1963. Iron and copper complexes of avian conalbumins and human transferrins by electron paramagnetic response. Biochemistry2(6): 1341–45.
TIMOTHY VITALE is currently a conservation consultant working from Aptos, California. He has a B.A. in art history from San Jose State University, 1973, and a M.S. in art conservation from the University of Delaware/Winterthur Art Conservation Program, 1977. He was a staff member at the Stanford University Museum, 1970–74, and served an apprenticeship with Sella Petri, a book conservator in San Francisco. He was head of paper conservation, Intermuseum Conservation Association, Oberlin, Ohio, 1978–82, and chief of the preservation branch, National Archives and Records Service, Washington, D.C., 1982–83. From 1983 to 1993 he worked at the Conservation Analytical Laboratory. He was president of the AIC Book and Paper group, 1982–84, and served on the AIC Certification and Accreditation Committee 1981–86. Address: 158 Via Trinita, Aptos, Calif. 95003.
PAUL MESSIER is a conservator in private practice working in the Boston metropolitan area. He has an A. B. in art history from Vassar College, 1984, and an M.A. and C.A.S. in the conservation of works of art on paper from State University College at Buffalo. He worked as an apprentice in photographic materials conservation with Jose Orraca from 1985 to 1987. From 1989 to 1990 he completed an intern-ship with Anne Cartier-Bresson at the Atelier de Restauration des Photographies in Paris. He worked as a postgraduate fellow with Timothy Vitale at the Conservation Analytical Laboratory of the Smithsonian Institution where he completed research into the effect of aqueous treatment of albumen photographs in 1991. From 1991 to 1994 he was head of the paper and photographic materials conservation department at the Rocky Mountain Conservation Center in Denver. As an adjunct faculty member within the art history department at the University of Denver, he developed and taught a course designed to introduce the field of art conservation to graduate and undergraduate students. Address: 77 Griggs Rd., Brookline, Mass. 02146.