CLEANING, IRON STAIN REMOVAL, AND SURFACE REPAIR OF ARCHITECTURAL MARBLE AND CRYSTALLINE LIMESTONE: THE METROPOLITAN CLUB
FRANK G. MATERO, & ALBERTO A. TAGLE
ABSTRACT—The Metropolitan Club, designed and built in New York City by McKim, Mead, and White in the 1890s, has particularly extravagant exterior stonework. However, as a result of the type of stone selected, natural weathering, and improper maintenance over time, the stonework had become severely discolored and eroded by 1989. The authors first characterize the stones used and describe the types of damage found, all identified with various analytical techniques, including thin-section petrography, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The authors then discuss the treatments carried out on the stonework, including metallic stain removal, consolidation, and mechanical repairs.
2. THE BUILDING: DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
3. THE STONE
4. CONSERVATION PROGRAM
1. APPENDIX A
a: Appendix , Notes , References , Author Information