Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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A commonly occurring, nonmetallic, univalent and polyvalent element (Cl), belonging to the halogens, and used, generally in the form of chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ), or hypochlorite (Ca(ClO) 2 ), as a bleach to whiten paper pulp, usually in one or more of the final stages in a multi-stage sequence. Its use as a bleaching agent in paper manufacture began in 1774 but its deleterious effects, while noticed almost immediately, were largely misunderstood or ignored. Chlorine residues are extremely difficult and expensive to remove, and many chlorine compounds break down slowly forming highly destructive hydrochloric acid in the process. Chlorine is also used as a disinfectant in leather manufacture. (198 , 235 )

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