Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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crushed

1. A leather which has been heavily pressed, causing the grain to be flattened, or crushed, thereby leaving a smooth, glazed, yet grained effect. Such leather has an unnatural appearance and is now seldom used in craft bookbinding. 2. A defect in a machine-made paper, having the appearance of a paper with a broken, mottled, or cloudy formation. It may be caused by: 1) running the paper web under the dandy roll while it is too wet; 2) running the web through the presses while too wet; or 3) running the web through the calender or supercalender while still containing too much moisture. Paper crushed at the dandy roll or in the presses results in coarse mottling, while paper crushed in either of the calenders has a finer mottling, often accompanied by blackening. (17 , 83 , 94 )




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