Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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fiber orientation

The direction in which the greater proportion of the fibers of a paper have their larger dimension, which is their length. Handmade papers have the least degree of lengthwise orientation due to the multiple shaking of the mold when it is lifted from the vat, which causes the fibers to settle in various directions. Machine-made papers have the greater proportion of their fibers oriented in the longer or MACHINE DIRECTION of the paper; however, some Fourdrinier papermaking machines are equipped with shaking wires that cause more fibers to shift away from the direction of movement of the wire. (157 , 320 )




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