Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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substance

1. The weight of a paper expressed in terms of weight per ream of sheets of a given size. It is usually based on a ream of 500 sheets. The weight of a ream of a given size and number of sheets is called the substance number, the "substance" being the product of the density, i.e., the degree of dilution of the pulp suspension flowing onto the papermaking machine wire, the rate at which it flows, and the speed of the wire. See also: BASIS WEIGHT . 2. The total weight of a hide or skin suitable for conversion into leather. While "substance" in this context will vary greatly, depending on the type of hide or skin, age and sex of the animal, etc., as an example of substance, 100 pounds of green salted calfskin will average:
    43.8 pounds water
     5.9 pounds (dry) hair
     3.8 pounds (dry) fleshings
      .8 pounds pate or cheekings
     2.0 pounds (physiologic) fat
      .5 pounds minerals
    12.0 pounds salt (NaCl)
    31.2 pounds hide substance
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