Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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water

A colorless or faintly blue-green liquid (H 2 O). Molecules of water enter into the constitution of many crystalline salts, e.g., alum—K 2 SO 4 .Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 . 24H 2 O, in which they may be reversibly held. The outstanding chemical reactions of water are: 1) its reaction with certain metals, e.g., Na, Ca, Fe, more or less easily, with the liberation of hydrogen, such as, Na + H 2 O → NaOH + H; 2) its reaction with oxides of non-metals, e.g., with SO 3 to form acids, such as, SO 3 + H 2 O → H 2 SO 4 ; 3) with halides of nonmetals, to form hydrogen halides and an oxyacid, such as PCl 3 + 3H 2 O → H 3 PO 3 + 3HCl; 4) with dissolved salts of weak acids or weak bases, forming solutions with an alkaline or acid reaction (hydrolysis), such as Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O ⇌ NaOH + NaHCO 3 ; and 5) with coke at high temperature to form water gas, C + H 2 O → CO + H 2 . (235 )




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