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Emergency Red List of Libyan Cultural Objects at Risk

Why a Red List for Libya?         
The instability and violence that Libya experienced in recent years have put its cultural heritage under tremendous stress and high risk. The threat of systematic damage to cultural heritage sites is of great concern. The losses endured are leading to the historical impoverishment of a country with an exceptionally rich cultural heritage. The slow but steady disappearance of Libya’s cultural witnesses of the past has rendered evident the need for immediate action that will help protect them.

ICOM, thanks to the support of the US Department of State, is publishing the Emergency Red List of Libyan Cultural Objects at Risk to help law enforcement officials as well as art and heritage professionals identify objects originating from Libya that are protected by national legislation and international agreements and instruments, and at risk of being illicitly traded.

The purpose of the Emergency Red List of Libyan Cultural Objects at Risk is to ensure the right of future generations to this heritage. To this aim, ICOM, in close cooperation with a team of national and international experts, has identified and presented here the types of objects from Libya that the current market trends are exposing to the greatest risks.

 

Download the Emergency Red List of Libyan Cultural Objects at Risk in English 

Download the Emergency Red List of Libyan Cultural Objects at Risk in French 

Download the Emergency Red List of Libyan Cultural Objects at Risk in Arabic 

Download the Emergency Red List of Libyan Cultural Objects at Risk in German 

List of object categories

Leaf-shaped gold, emerald and pearl earring, Lepcis Magna, Hellenistic period (4th c. BC), H 2.5 cm.

Accessories and instruments - Jewellery

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Material
Metals | Stone | Glass
Type
Jewellery
Countries
Libya
Period
1st millennium BC – AD 1551
Ceramic oil lamp decorated with the silphium motif, Erythron - Al Athrun, Byzantine period, 12 x 8 cm.

Accessories and instruments - Lamps

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Material
Ceramics | Metals
Type
Instruments
Countries
Libya
Period
1st millennium BC – AD 1551
Iron strigil, Wadi er-Rsaf (Lepcis Magna) necropolis, Early Roman period, 19.5 x Ø 12 cm.

Accessories and instruments - Various instruments


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Material
Stone | Metals | Alabaster
Type
Tools | Utensils and vessels
Countries
Libya
Period
1st millennium BC – AD 1551
Marble Asiatic Corinthian capital decorated with theatre masks on an Attic column base, Lepcis Magna, Roman period (AD 150 – 160), capital 84 x 116 x 114 cm; base 34 x 80 cm.

Architectural elements - Column capitals and bases, lintels, cornices and chancel screens


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Material
Limestone | Marble | Stone | Granite | Porphyry
Type
Architectural elements
Countries
Libya
Period
1st millennium BC – AD 1551
Mosaic representing fishermen (detail), Villa Nile (Lepcis Magna), Roman period (3rd c. AD), 380 x 118 cm.

Architectural elements - Mosaics




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Material
Marble | Limestone | Stone | Granite | Porphyry
Type
Mosaics | Architectural elements
Countries
Libya
Period
1st millennium BC – AD 1551
Polychrome wall painting on plaster (fragment) from the House of Leukaktios, Ptolemais (Cyrenaica), Roman period (3rd c. AD), 90 x 160 cm.

Architectural elements - Wall paintings

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Material
Plaster
Type
Architectural elements | Paintings
Countries
Libya
Period
1st millennium BC – AD 1551
Silver tetradrachm coin with the silphium plant (obverse) and a head (reverse), Cyrene, 435 – 375 BC, 13.29 g.

Coins

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Material
Metals
Type
Coins
Countries
Libya
Period
1st millennium BC – AD 1551
Bone plaque with Erotes on dolphins, Lepcis Magna, Roman period (first half of the 3rd c. AD), 11.7 x 4.9 cm.

Reliefs, plaques, steles and inlays - Bones and ivory


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Material
Bones | Ivory
Type
Inlays | Plaques | Reliefs | Sculptures | Steles
Countries
Libya
Period
5th millennium BC – AD 642
Limestone funerary stele with Latin inscription, Bu Njem, Roman period (first half of the 3rd c. AD), 70 x 47.5 x 5 cm.

Reliefs, plaques, steles and inlays - Stone, stucco and bronze


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Material
Limestone | Marble | Sandstone | Stone | Stucco
Type
Inlays | Plaques | Reliefs | Sculptures | Steles
Countries
Libya
Period
5th millennium BC – AD 642
Engraved and painted rock art fragment illustrating two oxen and an anthropomorphic (human) representation, Jebel Ben Ghnēma, 5th – 4th millennium BC, ≈ 90 x 65 cm.

Rock art

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Material
Stone
Type
Sculptures | Reliefs | Rock art
Countries
Libya
Period
5th millennium BC – AD 642
Terracotta figurine of a goddess, Cyrenaica, Greek period (ca. 450 BC), H 24.5 cm.

Sculptures - Ceramic and metal

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Material
Ceramics | Metals | Terracotta
Type
Sculptures
Countries
Libya
Period
5th millennium BC – AD 642
Marble headless kore (young woman), Cyrene, Greek period (last quarter of the 6th c. BC), H 1.20 m.

Sculptures - Stone

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Material
Marble | Limestone | Stone
Type
Sculptures | Statues | Portrait
Countries
Libya
Period
5th millennium BC – AD 642
Glass funerary urn, Lepcis Magna, Roman period, 26.5 x 16.3 cm.

Vessels and containers - Glass and semi-precious stones

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Material
Glass | Semi-precious stones
Type
Containers
Countries
Libya
Period
1st millennium BC – AD 1551
Ceramic jug, Lepcis Magna, Aghlabide period (AD 800 – 909), 14.5 x Ø 16 cm.

Vessels and containers - Islamic Era

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Material
Ceramics | Stone | Limestone | Marble
Type
Containers
Countries
Libya
Period
1st millennium BC – AD 1551
Small bronze amphora with Satyre-shaped handles, Wadi er-Rsaf (Lepcis Magna) necropolis, Roman period (1st c. AD), 25.5 x Ø 13 cm.

Vessels and containers - Metal



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Material
Metals
Type
Containers
Countries
Libya
Period
1st millennium BC – AD 1551
Alabaster lekythos, Cyrenaica, Greek period (400 – 300 BC), H 23.45 cm.

Vessels and containers - Stone and ceramics (Prehistory and Ancient History - Flasks)

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Material
Alabaster | Stone | Limestone | Marble | Ceramics | Clay
Type
Containers
Countries
Libya
Period
1st millennium BC – AD 1551
Limestone urn vase with lid, voluted handles, ribbed motifs and an inscription, Tazuit (Homs) necropolis, Roman period (2nd c. AD), 44 x Ø 34.5 cm.

Vessels and containers - Stone and ceramics (Prehistory and Ancient History - Funerary urns)

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Material
Limestone | Marble | Ceramics | Stone
Type
Containers
Countries
Libya
Period
1st millennium BC – AD 1551
Marble sarcophagus or cinerary urn with swags of leaves, fruits and nuts tied to the horns of bucrania in relief, Ain-el-Selmani (Benghazi), Roman period (ca. AD 120 – 140), 44.8 x 66 x 44.1 cm.

Vessels and containers - Stone and ceramics (Prehistory and Ancient History - Sarcophagi and chest urns)

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Material
Marble | Stone
Type
Containers
Countries
Libya
Period
1st millennium BC – AD 1551
Small pottery hydria with a red design of ivy wreath and bands, Cyrenaica, Hellenistic period (300 – 200 BC), H 20 cm.

Vessels and containers - Stone and ceramics (Prehistory and Ancient History - Vases, jars and amphorae)

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Material
Ceramics
Type
Containers
Countries
Libya
Period
1st millennium BC – AD 1551