PIGMENT ANALYSIS OF EARLY AMERICAN WATERCOLORS AND FRAKTUR
Janice H. Carlson, & John Krill
Joseph E.Illick, Colonial Pennsylvania: A History, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976), p. 123.
Russell WeidnerGilbert, A Picture of the Pennsylvania Germans, Pennsylvania History Studies: No. 1, (Gettysburg: The Pennsylvania Historical Association, 1971), 3rd edition, pp. 6–7.
Gilbert, Pennsylvania Germans, p. 11–12.
HenryMercer, “The Survival of the Medieval Art of Illuminative Writing Amoung Pennsylvania Germans”, (Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 36, no. 156 (1897), p. 424.), reprinted in Contributions to American History, No. 2, (Doylestown, Pa.: The Bucks County Historical Society).
Gilbert, Pennsylvania Germans, p. 49.
Henry C.Mercer, Tools of the Nationmaker, (Doylestown, Pa: Bucks County Intelligencer, 1897), p. 65.
FrancesLichten, The Illuminated Manuscripts of the Pennsylvania Dutch, (Philadelphia: Free Library of Philadelphia, 1958), p. 24.
HenryBorneman, “Pennsylvania German Illuminated Manuscripts”, Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society, 46, (1937), p. 41.
Monroe H.Fabian, Associate Curator, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C., personal letter.
Lichten, Illuminated Manuscripts, p. 24.
John W.Maxon, Jr., “American Papermakers in the Great Tariff Debate”, The Paper Maker, 31, no. 1 (1962), pp. 23–24. In 1820, the petition “The Memorial of the Society of Paper Makers of the States of Pennsylvania and Delaware” was presented to Congress. It reflected the times: The district we represent offers, we think, a comparative view of the state of this manufacture in the country at large—In this seventy Paper Mills, are erected which were in full operation, until the imporations after the late war; in these there were ninety-five paper vats…employing nine hundred and fifty persons…; and from the causes we have mentioned we find that there remain but seventeen vats at work… leaving unemployed 775 persons….
JosephKindigIII, introductory lecture to “The Pennsylvania German Influence on American Decorative Arts”, Pennsbury Manor Americana Forum, Pennsbury, Pennsylvania, September, 1977.
V. F.Hanson, “Quantitative Elemental Analysis of Art Objects by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy”, Applied Spectroscopy, 27, no. 5 (1973), pp. 309–334.
J. H.Carlson, “X-ray Fluorescence Analysis of Pewter: English and Scottish Measures”, Archaeometry, 19, no. 2, (1977), pp. 147–155.
J. R.Gettens and G. L.Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopedia, (New York: Dover, 1966).
R. D.Harley, Artists' Pigments, c.1600–1835, (New York: American Elsevier, 1970).
Grateful acknowledgement is made to the Mercer Museum, Doylestown, Pa., for the lending of the pigments for analysis.
Trade Card (66 × 93.4), Osborne and Company, Philadelphia, c. 1843, The Joseph Downs Manuscript and Microfilm Collection, Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Delaware.