JAIC 1979, Volume 18, Number 2, Article 3 (pp. 95 to 107)
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Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 1979, Volume 18, Number 2, Article 3 (pp. 95 to 107)


Weston Craigen


A Zeiss OPMI-6M Operating Microscope was used when a binocular microscope was required for examination under low magnification. All instrumentation employed in this study is located at the Center for Conservation and Technical Studies, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. 02138.

An Olympus POM Polarizing Microscope was used. The standard fiber samples were obtained from the Institute of Paper Chemistry, P.O. Box 1039, Appleton, WI. 54911.

“C” Stain was supplied by the Institute of Paper Chemistry. For discussions of fiber identification see the following: Charles H.Carpenter, et. al., Papermaking Fibers: A Photomicrographic Atlas of Woody, Non-Woody, and Man-Made Fibers Used in Papermaking, Technical Publication No. 74, Syracuse, NY: State University College of Forestry, 1963; and John H.Graff, A Color Atlas for Fiber Identification, Appleton, WI: The Institute of Paper Chemistry, 1940.

For a discussion of the principles of X-ray diffractometry see B. D.Cullity, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., 1956.

Scotch Brand Magic Transparent Tape, no. 810.

The Diano Corp. X-Ray Diffraction Unit, no. XRD 8000, used in this research, produces monochromatic X-rays from copper radiation with a nickel filter.

Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards, Inorganic Index of the Powder Diffraction File.

Cullity, p. 94.

The Debye-Scherrer camera used has a diameter of 114.6mm. The film used was Industrial G Film, manufactured by Illford Photographic Materials. It was processed with Kodak Liquid X-Ray Developer and Kodak Rapid Fixer. The resulting film was analyzed with a Supper X-Ray Diffraction Instruments film reader.

The refractive index liquids were manufactured by R. P. Cargille Laboratories, Inc.

For a discussion of the principles of emission spectrography see Galen W.Ewing, Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis, 3rd. ed., New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1960, p. 164.

An attempt was made to determine the precise amount of sodium chloride in the sheet by first weighing a piece of the margin. This 1cm square sample was then washed in deionized water, allowed to dry, and re-weighed. The difference between the two weights was not an accurate measure of the loss of sodium chloride, however, because many paper fibers were also washed away due to the weakened condition of the paper.

Cornelius S.Hurlbut, Jr., Minerals and Man, New York: Random House, 1970, p. 118.

Kirk-Othmer, “Bleaching Agents,” Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 2nd. ed., New York: Interscience Publishers, Vol. 3, p. 555.

A Beckman Zeromatic SS-3 pH Meter was used with an Ingold Combination Electrode, no. 6002–07.

Kirk-Othmer, p. 555.

A.Shahin and OttoWachter, “Simplification of the Chlorine Dioxide Bleaching System,” Conservation of Paintings and Graphic Arts, IIC, Lisbon Conference, 1972, p. 955.

E.DeWitte, “Soluble Nylon as Consolidation Agent for Stone,” Studies in Conservation, Vol. 20, February, 1975, p. 30.

This soluble nylon was sold under the name “Calaton” by Frank W. Joel Laboratory Chemicals, P.O. Box 6, Downham Market. Norfolk PE38 9ED, England.

H. J.Plenderleith and A. E. A.Werner, The Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art, London: Oxford University Press, 1971, p. 304.

This monofilament nylon is sold under the name “Nitex” and was obtained from Lambert Co., Inc., 920 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA. 02100.

The test for chloride is described by Plenderleith, p. 201. The procedure here was to soak pieces of the blotters in deionized water and then test the water with 4 drops of dilute nitric acid and 5 drops of 2% silver nitrate in water. The presence of chloride ions is indicated by the formation of the white precipitate, silver chloride.

Mallinkrodt, Inc. manufactured the thymol used.

The thin paper used first was Tengujo; the thick paper was Kizuki-Atsuguchi. Both were obtained from Washi No Mise, RD 2, Baltimore Pike, Kennett Square, PA. 19348.

The wheat starch was Aytex P and was obtained from TALAS. It was made into paste at a ratio of 1:25 with deionized water.

PVA emulsion, No. R-2258, was purchased from TALAS. The ragboard was Museum Mounting Board (100% rag, acid-free) manufactured by University Products, Inc., P.O. Box 101, So. Canal Street, Holyoke, MA. 01040.

The acid-free white paper used to make photocorners was obtained from Process Materials Corp., 329 Veterans Blvd., Carlstadt, N. J. 07072. Gummed cloth tape (white, nonperforated) was from Gane Bros. & Lane, Inc., P.O. Box 93843, Chicago, IL. 60670.

The polystyrene board is sold under the name “Fome-Cor” and is made by the Monsanto Corp. Its edges were sealed with Scotch Brand Magic Transparent Tape, No. 810.

Letter from Dr. E. Kornfeld to Mrs. Martin Cohn, December 21, 1978.

Copyright 1979 American Institute of Historic and Artistic Works