THE TREATMENT OF THREE PRINTS BY WHISTLER ON FINE JAPANESE TISSUE
Shelley Fletcher, & Judith Walsh
pH measurement taken with a combination, flat-head electrode Beckman Century SS-1 pH meter.
Starch was confirmed by application of a drop of Potassium Iodide solution on the fiber removed from the edge of the sheet. The solution is described in B.L.Browning, The Analysis of Paper, New York: Marcek Dekker, 1969, p. 84; and in Irving H.Isenberg, Pulp and Paper Microscopy, Appleton, Wisconsin: Institute of Paper Chemistry, 1967, pp. 280–281.
PaulBanks, see “Paper Cleaning,” Restaurator, Vol. 1, pp. 52–66. Wendelbo, Ø, Fosse, B., “Protein Surgery,” A Restoring Procedure Applied to Paper, Restaurator, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 245–248. Wendelbo, Dr.Øystein, “The Use of Enzymes in Restoration Purposes,” Archives et Bibliothéques de Belgique Numero Special 12, Brussels, 1974, p. 235–241. Segal, Judith, “The Use of Enzymes to Release Adhesives,” The Paper Conservator, Vol. 2, London, 1977, pp. 47–50.
Addresses for Sigma Chemical Products:, Sigma Chemical Company, P.O. Box 14508, St. Louis, MO 63178 U.S.A. (314–771–5750), Sigma London Chemical Co., Ltd. Fancy Road, Poole, Dorset BH17 7NH England, Sigma Chemie Gmbh. Munchen, Am Bahnsteig 7, D-8021 Taufkirchen, West Germany
This pH is slightly higher than suggested in the product literature to compensate for the slight acidity of the tissue.
Private correspondence from Roy Perkinson, Paper Conservator, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts.
Koppi-shi is an exceptionally fine weight Japanese paper with a hard, shiny surface. A sample sheet can be found in the “Seki Collection” of Thomas K. Tindale's The Handmade Papers of Japan, Vermont, 1952. He reports being told by Ginta Yoshi, a papermaker, that this paper was first exported in 1884–1887 from Kochi Ken and Gifu prefectures. The best quality koppi-shi was made exclusively from gampi fibers and used for copying calligraphy, and sometimes was oiled and used medically under compresses and bandages (p. 86). The Whistler lithographs are dated1890–95.
Fibers identified by morphological characteristics described in Isenberg, Pulp and Paper Microscopy (noted above) and by comparison to reference slides obtained from McCrone Associates, Inc., 2820 So. Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60616 U.S.A.
Tengujo, also 100 percent kozo, when wetted showed no grain, and expanded exactly the same amount in both directions. This anamoly we attribute to the tissue's thinness and random fiber orientation.
. Figures in this article reproduce Weary by James Abbott McNeill Whistler (National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, B14,309; Gift of Mr. Myron A. Hofer in memory of his mother, Jane Arms Hofer) and Nude Model Standing, also by Whistler (National Gallery of Art, B 14015, Rosenwald Collection).