JAIC 1982, Volume 21, Number 2, Article 4 (pp. 59 to 76)
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Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 1982, Volume 21, Number 2, Article 4 (pp. 59 to 76)


J. Nelson, A. King, N. Indictor, & D. Cabelli


ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 60-B. Paper and Paperboard Characteristics, Nomenclature, and Significance of Tests, 3rd Edition. Part II, p. 11–14 discusses “The Action of Water on Paper and Its Significance.”

Lucia C.Tang and Norvell M.M.Jones, “The Effects of Wash Water Quality on the Aging Characteristics of Paper,” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, Vol. 18 (Spring 1979): 61–81.

Manufactured by Whatman Inc., Whatman Paper Division, 9 Bridewell Place, Clifton, NJ 07014.

Laboratory Catalog 1979 Paper Products, Publication 800, Whatman Inc. (1979), p. 24; and Paper Chromatography Laboratory Guide, Bulletin No. 201, Whatman Inc. (1977), p. 14 and p. 17. The authors thank Ellen Pearlstein for sharing her research on Whatman paper.

Manufactured by Arjomari, S.A., 3 Rue du Pont du Lodi, Paris 6 France, represented in the United States by Special Papers, RFD 2, West Reading, CT.

The distributors of this paper are authorized to state only that it is 100% rag, buffered with 3% calcium carbonate, and has a synthetic size. (Ms. Vera Freeman, Manager, Art Paper Dept., Andrews/Nelson/Whitehead, 31-10 47th Avenue, Long Island City, NY.) The angle between the paper surface and the sides of a drop of water placed on it is acute, as described in TAPPI T-458 os-70, indicating that the paper is hard-sized. Microscopic examination of several samples failed to reveal fibers other than cotton.

Machine direction of the papers used in this study was determined by flexing as described in TAPPI T-409 os-61.

Manufactured by Bee Paper Co., 100 8th Street, Passaic, NJ.

The specifications for this sheet are “novel news; 321b/500 (2436) sheets; rough, toothy finish; well-sized; clean.” Its composition is approximately 80% groundwood, with the remaining 20% being chemical woodpulp, from either a sulfite or sulfate process, at the mill's discretion. The nature of the size is likewise at the mill's discretion. (Mrs. Bee, President, Bee Paper Co.) Tests for alum and rosin gave positive results, indicating the presence of alum-rosin size. (W.J. Barrow Research Laboratory, Inc. Permanence/Durability of the Book—VI, Spot Testing for Unstable Modern Book and Record Papers, p. 12–13.)

Manufactured by Barnstead, Division of Sybron Corp., 225 Rivermoor Street, Boston, MA 02132.

The free and total chlorine test kit, Hach Model CN-70, and the hardness as calcium carbonate test kit, Hach Model HA-71A, were obtained from Hach Co., PO Box 389, Loveland, CO 80537.

The use of nitrogen gas for the stabilization of distilled water is suggested in TAPPI T-509 su-68.

This technique was suggested by Debbie Trupin.

The authors thank Mr. Tony Frantz, of the Objects Conservation Dept. of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, for the use of the infrared spectrophotometer in his department.

M.G.Blank, “The Effect of Polymer Additives on the Strength of Paper of Different Compositions,” Restaurator, Vol. 2 (1978): 155–162, p. 161.

For characterization of polyester films, see Polyester Film Encapsulation, Library of Congress (1980).

VincentDaniels, “The Elimination of Bleaching Agents from Paper,” Paper Conservator, Vol. 1 (1976): 9–11.

GlenGray, in “Determination and Significance of Activation Energy in Permanence Tests,” has shown that diffusion rates influence the degradation of paper in accelerated aging. (Preservation of Paper and Textiles of Historic and Artistic Value, Advances in Chemistry Series No. 164, John C.Williams, ed. (1977): 286–313, p. 289.)

For recent discussions of accelerated age testing, see E.E.Graminski, E.J.Parks, and E.E.Toth, “The Effects of Temperature and Moisture on the Accelerated Aging of Paper,” Restaurator, Vol. 2 (1978): 175–178; and W.K.Wilson and E.J.Parks, “An Analysis of the Aging of Paper. Possible Reactions and Their Effects on Measurable Properties,” Restaurator, Vol. 3 (1979): 38–62. In the latter, Wilson and Parks point out that while ideal accelerated aging conditions are as yet impossible to define, an accelerated aging test does provide information for ranking different samples with regard to specified criteria.

Tinius Olsen Testing Machine Co., Instruction Booklet No. 64-10 for Folding Endurance Tester, p. 12–13, lists procedure according to ASTM Specification D-2176-63T. This differs from TAPPI T-511 su-59 in not requiring a fan to cool the oscillating head.

Standard deviation for all data groups was calculated at the 90% confidence level with t values from W.L. Masterton and E.J. Slowinski, Mathematical Preparation for General Chemistry, W. B. Saunders Co., London (n.d.): p. 176, according to directions for calculation of population standard deviation, The HP-19C Printing and HP-29C Programmable Scientific Calculators Owner's Handbook and Programming Guide, Hewlett-Packard Co. (September 1977): p. 87–89, using the following formula, where “n” is the number of data points and “σx” is the sum of the values of the data points:

Fig. .

Instron Operating Instructions, Manuals No. 10-13-1M(D), 10-13-2 (TM-M), 10-2-2(C), 10-32-5(C).

Munsell Book of Color. Glossy Finish Collection with Removable Samples. Munsell Color Co., (1966).

Bausch & Lomb Instructions Book No. 332961-311ND.

Beckman Instructions 81689-A.

Ingold Electrode No. 18513, General Information Booklet.

This procedure is adapted from the description by Richard D.Smith in his article “A Comparison of Paper in Identical Copies of Books,” Restaurator, Supplement No. 2 (1972), p. 22–23.

GlenGray, op. cit., states that when internal sizing agents have not completely polymerized in the manufacturing process, strength factors may increase during initial phases of the incubation cycle. Similar non-linear aging behavior has been reported for more complex adhesive-paper systems in which the components of the system experience marked alteration during the aging process, e.g., degradation, cross-linking. (N.S.Baer, N.Indictor, and W.H.Phalen, “An Evaluation of Adhesives for Use in Paper Conservation,” Journal of the Guild of Bookworkers, Vol. 10, No. 1 (1971): 17–35.)

Tang and Jones, op. cit., p. 77–78.

MargaretHey, “The Washing and Aqueous Deacidification of Paper,” The Paper Conservator, Vol. 4 (1979): 66–80.

Tang and Jones, op. cit., p. 78.


THIS RESEARCH WAS UNDERTAKEN in a course given at the Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University. The authors thank the Co-Chairmen of the Conservation Center, Profs. N. S. Baer and L. J. Majewski, for their support, and also Mrs. Violet Bourgeois and Ms. Lee Stoby. Thanks are due also to the other members of the class for their valuable suggestions and criticism: Jeanne Brako, Deborah Trupin, Dianne O'Neal, and Ellen Pearlstein.

Copyright 1982 American Institute of Historic and Artistic Works