EFFECTS OF ERASER TREATMENT ON PAPER
E. J. Pearlstein, D. Cabelli, A. King, & N. Indictor
Walter C.McCrone Associates, “The Report on Testing Book Cleaning Materials,” Report to the Library Technology Project No. 50, July, 1966, unpublished mss.
Walter C.McCrone Associates, Appendix 4 in Horton, Carolyn, Cleaning and Preserving Bindings and Related Materials, 2nd Ed., American Library Association, Chicago, 1969, p. 64.
Banks, Paul, “Paper Cleaning,” Restaurator I, 1969, pp. 52–53.
McInnis, Kerry, “Two Studies in Paper Conservation Practice,” I.C.C.M. Bulletin, 6, June, 1980.
ElizabethMoffatt, Conservation Scientist, Canadian Conservation Institute, has also been conducting research on the composition and behavior of eraser products used in paper conservation (private communication, September, 1981).
Munsell Color Company, Munsell Book of Color, Baltimore, Md., 1929–1970.
Mr.WalterIsrael, Chemist at Durasol Drug and Chemical Company, reports that two of the other dry cleaning pads manufactured by Durasol Drug and Chemical Company but distributed by other companies are Draft Clean Pads by Archival Aids, and ABC Draftsman's Dry Clean Pad by Keuffel and Esser Co. (private communication, Fall, 1980).
Paper Chromatography Laboratory Guide, Bulletin No. 201, 1977, Whatman, Inc., Clifton, N.J., p. 14. Whatman Chromatography #1 lacks uniform aging characteristics from roll to roll. Nelson, J.R. “Effects of Wash Water Quality on the Physical Properties of Three Papers,” Publication of the Art Conservation Training Programs Conference, N.Y., 1981.
This was determined according to ASTM methods, described in Paper and Paperboard: Characteristics, Nomenclature, and the Significance of Tests, 1963, as follows: The paper strip was dampened, allowed to dry, and then observed under low magnification. The wire pattern became evident.
Köhler Illumination is used for high resolution, and is described in McCrone, W., McCrone, L., Delly, J., Polarized Light Microscopy, Ann Arbor Science, Michigan, 1979, pp. 30, 32. The intensity on the rheostat was adjusted such that the camera's meter was balanced when the shutter speed was 1/4 second.
The film for both sets of slides was Kodak Ektachrome Tungsten, ASA 160.
Procedures for folding endurance, tensile strength, surface pH, etc. have been described previously. N. S.Baer, N.Indictor, W. H.Phelan, “An Evaluation of Adhesives for Use in Paper Conservation,” Guild of Book Workers Journal X, No. 1, 1971, pp. 17–35; N.S.Baer, N.Indictor, T.I.Schwartzman, I.L.Rosenberg, “Chemical and Physical Properties of Poly (vinyl acetate) Copolymer Emulsions,” ICOM Paper, Venice, Italy, 75/22/5, 1975, Paris.
Radley, J.A., and Grant, J., Fluorescence Analysis in Ultra-Violet Light, Chapman and Hall, London, 1954, p. 455.
Horton, Carolyn, Cleaning and Preserving Bindings and Related Materials, 2nd ed., American Library Association, Chicago, 1969, pp. 32–34.
A.Joel, N.Indictor, J.F.Hanlan and N.S.Baer, “The Measurement and Significance of pH in Paper Conservation,” IIC-AG Bulletin12 (2), 1972, pp. 119–125
Paciorek, K.L., Kratzer, R.H., Kaufman, J., Nakahara, J., Hartstein, A.M., “Oxidative Thermal Decomposition of Poly (vinyl chloride) Compositions,” The Journal of Applied Polymer Science18, 1974, pp. 3723–3729.
I WOULD LIKE to gratefully acknowledge Professors Norbert Baer and Lawrence Majewski of the Conservation Center at New York University for their support of this project. Warm thanks are extended to the members of the paper research class for their feedback and advice. I am also extremely grateful to James Frantz of Objects Conservation, Metropolitan Museum of Art, for use of the Infra-Red Spectrophotometer.