JAIC 1987, Volume 26, Number 2, Article 5 (pp. 121 to 129)
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Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 1987, Volume 26, Number 2, Article 5 (pp. 121 to 129)

COWLES'S PATENT MOTH, MILDEW, AND WATERPROOFING TREATMENT AND THE U.S. ARMY, 1869–1876

Ann Cordy Deegan




REFERENCES

U.S. Congress, “Quartermaster Annual Report,” U.S. Serial Set #1503, 42nd Cong., 2nd sess., September 27, 1871, pp. 163–164; U.S. Congress, “Quartermaster Annual Report,” U. S. Serial Set #1558, 42nd Cong., 3rd sess., September 30, 1872, pp. 178–179.

Invention Patent #44285, G.A.Cowles, J.P.Case, and V.Vierow, September 20, 1864, RG 241, Suitland Branch of the National Archives, Suitland, MD.

U.S. Congress, “Report of the Army Board of Inquiry1874,” U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., pp. 3–4. 6, 8; Letter from Meigs to Secretary of War, December 1, 1874, RG 92 QMCCF Box 211, National Archives, Washington, D.C. (see #2); Scientific American 34, #15 (April 8, 1876), RG 92 QMCCF Box 210, National Archives, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Congress, “Meigs to Committee,” U. S. Serial Set #1715, 44th Cong., 1st Sess., May 29, 1871, p. 465; and U.S. Cong., Letter from Cowles to Meigs, U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd sess., May 29, 1871, p. 64.

See #2.

U.S. Congress, Letter from Cowles to Meigs, U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., May 29, 1871, p. 64.

See #2.

See #5.

Typeset History of Cowles and the U.S. Army. 1876, RG 92 QMCCF Box 210, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

See #5.

Ibid.

See #2 and #5.

See #2.

U.S. Congress, “Cowles to Board,” October 29, 1874, p. 6 and November 11, 1874, p. 8, U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd sess.; and Letter from the Deputy Quartermaster General's Office, July 2, 1872, RG 92 QMCCF Box 208, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

Letter from the Deputy Quartermaster General's Office, July 2, 1872, RG 92 QMCCF Box 208, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Congress, “Lt. Lord, Ft. McHenry, MD,” U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., August 17, 1873, p. 33.

U.S. Congress, “Report by Lt. Kingsbury, Ft. Griffin, TX,” U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd sess., 1874, p. 23.

See #14.

Frederick P.Todd, American Military Equipage 1851–1872, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1980.

U.S. Congress, “Quartermaster Annual Report,” U.S. Serial Set #1635, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., 1874, p. 155; U.S. Congress, “Quartermaster Annual Report,” U.S. Serial Set #1674, 44th Cong., 1st Sess., 1875, p. 252; U.S. Congress, “Quartermaster Annual Report,” U.S. Serial Set #1742, 44th Cong., 2nd Sess., 1876, p. 181; U.S. Congress, “Board of 1874,”U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., tables for 1871–1874 of Cowles's-treated items, p. 66; U.S. Congress, “Testimony,” U.S. Serial Set #1715, 44th Cong., 1st Sess., Quartermaster Office tables of Cowles's treated items, 1871–1876, pp. 464–465.

See #1.

U.S. Congress, “Quartermaster Annual Report,” U.S. Serial Set #1597, 43rd Cong., 1st Sess., October 2, 1873, p. 151.

Ibid., pp. 151–152.

Sworn and notarized statement of George Cowles, June 20, 1872 and Letter from Van Antwerp to Easton, June 20, 1872, RG 92 QMCCF Box 208, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

Cowles, Case, and Vierow (Patent, 1864): see #2; Cowles and Case (February–April, 1871): Letter from Van Antwerp to Campbell, April 17, 1871, Box 73 and Letter from Van Antwerp to Van Vliet, February 23, 1871, Box 40 RG 92 #2182, National Archives, Washington, D.C.; Cowles and Brega (January–June, 1872): Letter from Van Antwerp to Campbell, January 29, 1872, RG 92 #2182 Box 60 and Sworn and notarized statement of George Cowles, June 20, 1872, RG 92 QMCCF Box 208, National Archives, Washington, D.C.; Cowles and Co./Geo. Cowles & Co. (June 1872–1876): Letter from Van Antwerp to Easton, June 20, 1871, RG 92 QMCCF Box 208; Letter from Johnston to Van Antwerp, July 2, 1872, RG 92 #2182 Box 40, National Archives, Washington, D.C.; and U.S. Congress, “Testimony,” U.S. Serial Set #1715, 44th Cong., 1st Sess., 1876; N.Y.W. & M.P. & P. Co. New York Water-Repellent, Moth and Mildew Preventative Company—at least by 1872): U.S. Congress, “Testimony,” U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd sess., 1874, pp. 70, 71, 78, 80, 84.

Letter from Van Antwerp to Easton, June 20, 1872, RG 92 QMCCF Box 208, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Congress, “Cowles and Brega,” U.S. Serial Set #1715, 44th Cong., 1st Sess., April 12, 1876, p. 430; see #8 the Army Board of 1872 was formed by Special Orders #329 of the Adjutant General's Office and U.S. Congress, “Board of 1874,”U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., December 7, 1874, p.1.

Letter from Johnston to Van Antwerp, July 2, 1872, Box 40 and Letter from Van Antwerp to Campbell, January 30, 1872, Box 60, RG 92 #2182, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Congress, “Report of the Army Board of Inquiry, 1874,” U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., October 26, 1874, pp. 3–4.

Letters from Campbell to Van Antwerp on February 22 and April 19, 1871, RG 92 #2182 Boxes 40 and 73, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

Ibid.

U.S. Congress, “Board of Inquiry, 1874,” U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., pp. 15, 20, 29–31, 33, 38, 41, 43.

Ibid., p. 29.

U.S. Congress, “Quartermaster Annual Report,” U.S. Serial Set #1597, 43rd Cong., 1st Sess., October 2, 1873, p. 153; and U.S. Congress Report of Capt. Rodgers, U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., 1874, p. 41.

U.S. Congress Quartermaster's Annual Report, U.S. Serial Set #1597, 43rd Cong., 1st Sess., October 2, 1873, p. 153.

U.S. Congress, “Board of 1874 Report,” U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., pp. 8, 16, 17, 48; and Letter from Campbell to Van Antwerp, April 19, 1871, RG 92 #2182 Box 73, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

Letters from Van Antwerp to Easton and Johnston to Van Antwerp, July 2, 1872, RG 92 #2182 Box 40; Letter from Campbell to Van Antwerp, April 19, 1871, Box 73, and Letter from Campbell to Van Antwerp, February 22, 1871, Box 40, RG 92 #2182, National Archives, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Congress, “Board of 1874,” U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., pp. 16, 17, 25, 28–29, 48, 50–51, 80.

U.S. Congress, U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd sess., pp. 41–42, 53, 55.

U.S. Congress, “Lt. Willard, Plattsburgh Barracks, NY,” U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., August 19, 1873, p. 43.

U.S. Congress, U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., pp. 42, 43, 53.

U.S. Congress, Cowles Letter to Meigs, U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd sess., September 7, 1874, pp. 56–57.

Marjory L.Joseph, Introductory Textile Science, 2nd ed., New York, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., 1972, p. 270.

See #14.

U.S. Congress, U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., pp. 14, 33, 55, 59; Letter from Johnston to Van Antwerp, July 2, 1872, RG 92 #2182 Box 40, National Archives, Washington, D.C.; and Letter from Campbell to Van Antwerp, January 30, 1872, RG 92 #2182 Box 60, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Congress, “Johnston Response to Board of 1874,”U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., October 28, 1874, p. 5.

See #41, p. 267.

Letter from Campbell to Van Antwerp, January 30, 1872, RG 92 #2182 Box 60, National Archives, Washington, D.C.; and U.S. Congress, Cowles Letter to Meigs, July 14, 1874, p. 39 and Rodgers Letter to Easton, July 23, 1874, U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., p. 61.

See #8 and U.S. Congress, “Annual Report of the Quartermaster,” U.S. Serial Set #1742, 44th Cong., 2nd Sess., September 8, 1876, p. 168.

U.S. Congress, “Board of the 1874 Report,” U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., pp. 7–8; Letter from Johnston to Van Antwerp and Letter from Easton to Meigs, July 2, 1872, RG 92 #2182 Box 40, National Archives, Washington, D.C.; Letter from Campbell to Van Antwerp, January 30, 1872, RG 92 #2182 Box 60; See #8; and U.S. Congress, “Ingalls Report,” U.S. Serial Set #1715, 44th Cong., 1st Sess., April 26, 1876, p. 454.

See #21.

Robert M.Utley, Frontier Regulars: The United States Army and the Indian, 1866–1891, Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska Press, 1984, pp. 59–62.

U.S. Congress, U.S. Serial Set #1715, 44th Cong., 1st Sess., 1876, p. 442.

Ibid., pp. 457–458.

Ibid., p. 458.

U.S. Congress, “Reports of Committees, #799,” U.S. Serial Set #1715, 44th Cong., 1st Sess., August 5, 1876, pp. vxiii–xx and xxiv–xxv; and U.S. Congress, “Report of the Army Board of Inquiry1874,” U.S. Serial Set #1644, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., pp. 7–9.



BIBLIOGRAPHY

Manuscripts. Washington, D.C. National Archives. Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General. Record Group 92. Quartermaster Consolidated Correspondence File (QMCCF) Boxes 208, 210, 211. Entry #2182, Boxes 40, 60, 73. Suitland, Maryland. Suitland Branch of the National Archives. Invention Patents. Record Group 241.

Printed Government Publications. U.S. Congress. Annual Reports of the Secretary of War to Congress. 41st Cong., 2nd Sess., 1869(U.S. Serial Set #1412, CIS, Washington, D.C.). 41st Cong., 3rd Sess., 1870(U.S. Serial Set #1446, CIS, Washington, D.C.). 42nd Cong., 2nd Sess., 1871(U.S. Serial Set #1503, CIS, Washington, D.C.). 42nd Cong., 3rd Sess., 1872(U.S. Serial Set #1558, CIS, Washington, D.C.). 43rd Cong., 1st Sess., 1873(U.S. Serial Set #1597, CIS, Washington, D.C.). 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., 1874(U.S. Serial Set #1635, CIS, Washington, D.C.). 44th Cong., 1st Sess., 1875(U.S. Serial Set #1674, CIS, Washington, D.C.). 44th Cong., 2nd Sess., 1876(U.S. Serial Set #1742, CIS, Washington, D.C.). U.S. Congress. House. Report of the Board of Officers Appointed to Investigate the Process of George A. Cowles and Co. for the Preservation of Clothing from Moth and Mildew. H. Ex. Doc. 17, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., 1874, (U.S. Serial Set #1644, CIS, Washington, D.C.). U.S. Congress. House. Report of the Committee on Expenditures in the War Department on “Contracts with Cowles and Brega for the Extermination of Moths in Army Clothing,” pp. vxiii–xxv and Testimony Regarding the Contracts with Cowles and Brega for the Extermination of Moths in Army Clothing, pp. 415–466. House Reports of Committees #799, “The Management of the War Department,” 44th Cong., 1st Sess., 1876(U.S. Serial Set #1715, CIS, Washington, D.C.).

Joseph, Marjory L.Introductory Textile Science. 2nd ed.New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1972.

Todd, Frederick P.American Military Equipage 1851–1872. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1980.

Utley, Robert M.Frontier Regulars: The United States Army and the Indian 1866–1891. Lincoln, NE: The University of Nebraska Press, 1984.


Copyright 1987 American Institute of Historic and Artistic Works