JAIC 1990, Volume 29, Number 2, Article 2 (pp. 117 to 131)
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 1990, Volume 29, Number 2, Article 2 (pp. 117 to 131)

CHEMICAL WATERMARKING OF PAPER

STEPHANIE WATKINS



6 SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

CHEMICALLY WATERMARKED stationery is most apt to appear in collections of archival and historic interest. In both instances, large quantities of documents are collected. Storage and problems requiring conservation attention are often considered en masse. Types of damage typical of these artifacts include soiling, stains from fastening implements (paper clips, rubber bands, and staples), tears, residue from pressure-sensitive tapes and adhesives, water and mold damage, embrittlement, and overall discoloration.

Erasers, aqueous alkaline solutions, and organic solvents are routinely used during the treatment of paper artifacts. Therefore, the interactions of the following materials with chemical watermarks were studied: seven types of erasers; four aqueous alkaline solutions; eighteen organic solvents; and seven bleaches and bleach neutralizers (antichlors). Untreated papers were subjected to humid and dry artificial aging in an effort to replicate the condition of naturally aged sheets. All three chemically watermarked sample papers were used for every test. Observations under normal, normal transmitted, and short-wave ultraviolet illumination were made. The results from these experiments were recorded through written and photographic documentation.


Copyright 1990 American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works