CHEMICAL WATERMARKING OF PAPER
1. These watermarks are also referred to as “Shadecraft” (American Paper and Pulp Association), “Shaded” (Plank Dandy Roll Company), “Shadow” (Fox River Paper Company), and “Light-and-shade” (Dard Hunter).
2. Both beta and Grenz radiography will record low-density materials, such as paper, on film. During this research, Grenz radiography was used because of the availability of equipment. The use of Grenz radiography also allows for shorter exposure times, larger film sizes, and sharper film images than does beta radiography.
3. The determination of epoxy resins through the detection of nitrogen, p. 250; the determination of formaldehyde using phloroglucinol, p. 254; the determination of urea- or melamine-formaldehyde using fuschsin hypochloride, p. 255; and the determination of melamine using infrared spectrometry, p. 263.
4. The determination of groundwood using phloroglucinol (TAPPI #T-401), p. 73; the determination of the presence of starch using the iodine test, p. 93; the determination of the presence of gelatin using the Biuret test, p. 103; the determination of the presence of alum using the aluminon test, p. 217.
5. Chemically applying laid and chain lines has been done in the past. However, clients tend to prefer the texture of sheets with traditionally produced laid and chain lines. Therefore, chemically produced laid and chain lines are not very common.
Block, M.1989. Letter to author concerning Institute File No. 89-70204, Institute of Paper Chemistry, Appleton, Wis. March 22.
Browning, B. L.1977. Analysis of paper. 2d ed.New York: Marcel Dekker.
Carlson, K.1988. Personal communication, November 23.
Carlson, K.1989. Personal communication, May 9.
Carlson, K.1990. Personal communication, April 13.
Rantanen, W.1989. Personal communication, April 7.
Skofronick, B. D.1969. Method of rendering shadowmark opaque by solvent treatment. U.S. Patent #3,443,979 (continuation of series #536,487). Assigned to Customark Corporation, Appleton, Wis.
Skofronick, B. D., Water-treated shadowmarks. U.S. Patent #3,486,923 (continuation of series #525,343). Assigned to Customark Corporation, Appleton, Wis.
Skofronick, B. D., and F.V.E.Vaurio. 1966. Chemical watermark applied on finished paper. U.S. Patent #3,293,062. Assigned to Customark Corporation, Appleton, Wisconsin. Vaurio, F.V.E.1963. Paper product with watermark and process therefor. U.S. Patent #3,085,898. Assigned to Customark Corporation, Appleton, Wis.
Vaurio, F.V.E.1964. Paper product with chemical watermark and means for making same. U.S. Patent #3,140,959. Assigned to Customark Corporation, Appleton, Wis.
Yankoski, J. J. n.d. [ca. mid-1960s–early 1970's]. Watermarks … are they practical? In Focus (Appleton, Wis., Fox River Paper Corporation) 2.
FURTHER READINGCHEMICAL WATERMARKS
Didwania, H. P.1966. Revolution in the process of watermarking. Indian Print Paper (England) 32(2):27–30.
Roberts, E., Jr.1964. There's no mystery about watermarks (knowing something about them can be useful). American Pressman74(3):6, 8, 10.
Weiner, J., and K.Mirkes. 1972. Watermarking. Bibliographic Series, no. 257. Appleton, Wis. Institute of Paper Chemistry.TRADITIONAL WATERMARKS
APPA. 1965. Watermark. In Dictionary of paper. New York: American Paper and Pulp Association.
Briquet, C. M.1923. Dictionaire historique des marques du papier, vols.1–4. 2d ed.Leipzig: Karl W. Hiersemann.
Gravell, T. L.1979. A catalogue of American watermarks, 1690–1835. New York: Garland Publishing.
Gravell, T. L.1983. A catalog of foreign watermarks found on paper used in America, 1700–1835. New York: Garland Publishing.
Heawood, E.1950. Historical review of watermarks. Amsterdam: N. V. Swets and Zeitlinger.
Heller, J.1978. Papermaking. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications.
Hunter, D.1916. Handmade paper and its watermarks: A bibliography. New York: The Mill, Marlborough-on-Hudson.
Hunter, D.1978. Papermaking: The history and technique of an ancient craft. 1943. New York: Dover Books.
Le Barre, E. J.1937. A dictionary of paper and papermaking terms. Amsterdam: N. V. Swets and Zeitlinger.
Leif, I. P.1978. An international sourcebook of paper history. Hamden, Conn. Archon Books, Shoestring Press.
Library of Congress. 1968. Papermaking: Art and craft.Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress.
Young, L. C.1973. Materials in printing processes. New York: Visual Communication Books, Hastings House Publishers.
SOURCES OF MATERIALS USEDOpaline dry cleaning pad, Patent #2, 287, 477
Durasol Chemical Co., Boston, Mass.Kodak Wratten deep blue gelatin filter #47, 75 × 75mm (3 × 3 in), catalog number 149 5787
Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y.Kneaded Eraser #1225, Pink Pearl #101 eraser
Eberhard Faber, Inc., Wilkes-Barre, Pa.Artgum #211 eraser, Magic Rub #1954 eraser
Faber Castell, Lewisburg, Tenn.Staedtler Mars Plastic eraser #526–52
Staedtler Mars, Nuremberg, West GermanyGroomstick natural rubber, molecular trap eraser
Talas (distributor), New York, N.Y.Methoxy magnesium methyl carbonate, in menthanol and trichlorotrifluoroethane, (Wei T'o Solution No. 2)
Wei T'o Associates, Matteson, Ill.
STEPHANIE WATKINS is a Getty fellow in paper conservation at the Northeast Document Conservation Center in Andover, Massachusetts. She previously worked at the Intermuseum Laboratory in Oberlin, Ohio and interned at the Library of Congress, Phillips Collection, International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, and Dard Hunter Paper Museum. She has received a master's degree in conservation from the State University College at Buffalo, and a bachelor's degree in fine art from Virginia Commonwealth University and had a Guggenheim student fellowship. Her interest in modern processes and materials is stimulated by her background in the fine arts. Address: Northeast Document Conservation Center, 100 Brickstone Square, Andover, Massachusetts 01810.