AN INVESTIGATION OF THE REMOVABILITY OF NATURALLY AGED SYNTHETIC PICTURE VARNISHES
SUZANNE QUILLEN LOMAX, & SARAH L. FISHER
AIC. 1985. Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice. Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works.
Constable, W. G.1979. The painter's workshop. 1953. New York: Dover Books.
de laRie, E. R.1982. Fluorescence of paint and varnish layers, pts. 1, 2, and 3. Studies in Conservation27:1–7, 65–69, 102–8.
de laRie, E. R.1987a. The influence of varnishes on the appearance of paintings. Studies in Conservation32:1–13.
de laRie, E. R.1987b. Research on picture varnishes: Status of the project at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. ICOM Committee for Conservation preprints, 8th Triennial Meeting, Sydney. 2:791–96.
de laRie, E. R.1988. Photochemical and thermal degradation of films of dammar resin. Studies in Conservation33:53–71.
DeWitte, E., M.Goessens-Landrie, E. J.Goethals, K.VanLerberghe, and C.VanSpringel. 1981. Synthesis of an acrylic varnish with high refractive index. ICOM Committee for Conservation preprints, 6th Triennial Meeting, Ottawa. 81/16/4-1–81/16/4-7.
Esposito, G. G., and M. H.Swann. 1965. Application of pyrolysis and programmed temperature gas chromatography to the analysis of thermosetting acrylic coating resins. Journal of Gas Chromatography3:282.
Ettre, K., and P. F.Varadi. 1962. Pyrolysis-gas chromatographic technique for direct analysis of thermal degradation products of polymers. Analytical Chemistry34:752.
Feller, R. L.1955a. Quarterly report of the Mellon Institute, April–August:18, 20.
Feller, R. L.1955b. Quarterly report of the Mellon Institute, September–November:3.
Feller, R. L.1956. Quarterly report of the Mellon Institute, June–August:2, 9.
Feller, R. L.1957a. Cross-linking of methacrylate polymers by ultraviolet radiation. Paper presented at the New York meeting of the Division of Paint, Plastics and Printing Ink Chemistry, American Chemical Society. 465–70.
Feller, R. L.1957b. Quarterly report of the Mellon Institute, June–August:5.
Feller, R. L.1958. Dammar and mastic varnishes: Hardness, brittleness, and change in weight upon drying. Studies in Conservation3:162–73.
Feller, R. L.1959. Quarterly report of the Mellon Institute, September–November:19.
Feller, R. L.1960. Quarterly report of the Mellon Institute, October–December:1.
Feller, R. L.1961. Quarterly report of the Mellon Institute, September–November:5–6.
Feller, R. L.1967. Research on durable thermoplastic polymers for the conservation of works of art. Estratto Dagli Atti Della XLIX Riunione Della SIPS, Siena. 1099–1102.
Feller, R. L.1971–72. Quarterly report of the Mellon Institute, November 1971–April 1972:5–6.
Feller, R. L.1973–74. Quarterly report of the Mellon Institute, November 1973–April 1974:12–13.
Feller, R. L.1976. The relative solvent power needed to remove various aged solvent-type coatings. In Conservation and restoration of pictorial art, ed.N.Brommelle and P.Smith. London: Butterworths. 158–161.
Feller, R. L.1978. Standards in the evaluation of thermoplastic resins. ICOM Committee for Conservation Preprints, 5th Triennial Meeting, Zagreb. 78/16/4.
Feller, R. L., and M.Curran. 1975. Changes in solubility and removability of varnish resins with age. Bulletin of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works15(2):17–26.
Feller, R. L., M.Curran, and C.Bailie. 1981. Photochemical studies of methacrylate coatings for the conservation of museum objects. In Photodegradation and Photostabilization of Coatings, ed.R. H.Winslow and S. P.Pappas. American Chemical Society Symposium Series151:183–96. Washington D.C.: ACS.
Feller, R. L., and S.Raynolds. 1953. Quarterly report of the Mellon Institute, March:1–44.
Feller, R. L., N.Stolow, and E. H.Jones. 1985. On picture varnishes and their solvents. Washington, D. C.: National Gallery of Art. 154–64.
Frankoski, S. P., and S.Siggia. 1972. Analysis of carboxylic esters using alkali fusion reaction gas chromatography. Analytical Chemistry44(3): 507–11.
Gettens, R.1935. Polymerized vinyl acetate and related compounds in the restoration of objects of art. Technical Studies4:15–27.
LaFontaine, R.1979. Decreasing the yellowing rate of dammar varnish using anti-oxidants. Studies in Conservation24:14–22.
Lehmann, R. A., and G. M.Brauer. 1961. Analysis of pyrolyzates of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) by gas chromatography. Analytical Chemistry33:673.
Lehrle, R. S., and J. C.Robb. 1967. The quantitative study of polymer degradation by gas chromatography. Journal of Gas Chromatography5:89.
Morimoto, K., and S.Suzuki. 1972. Ultraviolet irradiation of poly(alkyl acrylates) and poly(alkyl methacrylates). Journal of Applied Polymer Science16:2947–61.
Radell, E. A., and H. C.Strutz. 1959. Identification of acrylate and methacrylate polymers by gas chromatography. Analytical Chemistry31:1890.
Sadtler Research Laboratories. 1980. The infrared spectra atlas of monomers and polymers. Philadelphia: Sadtler Research Laboratories. 303–58, 394–412.
Thomson, G.1957. Some picture varnishes. Studies in Conservation3:64–78.
Thomson, G.1963. New picture varnishes. In Recent advances in conservation. London: Butterworths. 176–84.
SUZANNE QUILLEN LOMAX received her Ph.D. in organic chemistry in 1984 from the University of Maryland, working with Patrick Mariano exploring the photochemistry of iminium salts. She then went to Northwestern University, where she performed postdoctoral research with Frederick Lewis examining intermolecular photoaddition reactions. Before beginning her work at the National Gallery, Dr. Lomax worked briefly in the Office of Toxic Substances of the Environmental Protection Agency. She has been at the National Gallery Science Department since February 1986, investigating the identification and aging behavior of artists' materials. Address: National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 20565.
SARAH L. FISHER graduated from Wellesley College with a B.A. in art history in 1967. The majority of her conservation training was at the Swiss Institute for Art Research in Zurich under Dr. Thomas Brachert, with additional training in other Swiss cantons and Brussels, Florence, and Amsterdam. Following jobs at the Swiss Institute, the Intermuseum Laboratory in Oberlin, Ohio, and the Balboa Art Conservation Institute in San Diego, she has worked at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., since 1981, where she is now head of painting conservation. She has published on Rubens' and Watteau's painting methods and lectured on the materials and techniques of many Old Master painters. Address: National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 20565.