JAIC 1992, Volume 31, Number 3, Article 5 (pp. 325 to 342)
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 1992, Volume 31, Number 3, Article 5 (pp. 325 to 342)




ASTM. 1984. Standard test method for tensile strength of leather, D 2209-80. In Annual book of ASTM standards. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials. 15.04:453–55.

Bloodworth, J. G., and M. J.Parkinson. 1988. The display of parchment and vellum. Journal of the Society of Archivists9(2):65–58.

Bowes, J. H., and A. S.Raistrick. 1964. The action of heat and moisture on leather. V. Chemical changes in collagen and tanned collagen. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association59:201–15.

Bowes, J. H., and A. S.Raistrick. 1967. The action of heat and moisture on leather. Part VI: Degradation of the collagen. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association62:240–57.

Brodsky-Doyle, B., E. G.Bendit, and E. R.Blout. 1975. Infrared spectroscopy of collagen and collagen-like polypeptides. Biopolymers14:937–57.

Bull, H. B.1944. Adsorption of water vapor by proteins. Journal of American Chemical Society66:1499–1507.

Burton, D.M.B.E., J. B.Poole, and R.Reed. 1959. A new approach to the dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Nature164:533–34.

Calmes, A.1985. Charters of Freedom of the United States. Museum146:99–101.

Derrick, M.1992. Evaluation of the state of degradation of Dead Sea Scroll samples using FT-IR spectroscopy. In American Institute for Conservation Book and Paper Group Annual. 10:49–65.

Dole, M., and A. D.McLaren. 1947. The free energy, heat and entropy of sorption of water vapor by proteins and high polymers. Journal of the American Chemical Society96:651–57.

Evans, W. D., and C. L.Critchfield. 1933. The effects of atmospheric moisture on the physical properties of vegetable and chrome tanned calf leathers. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards11:147.

HainesB. M.1987. Shrinkage temperature in collagen fibres. Leather Conservation News3(2)1–5.

Horie, C. V.1990. Deterioration of skin in museum collections. Polymer Degradation and Stability29:109–33.

Kanagy, J. R.1940. Effect of oxygen concentration and moisture on the stability of leather at elevated temperatures. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards25:149.

Kanagy, J. R.1947. The adsorption of water vapor by untanned hide and various leathers at 100F. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association42:98.

Kozlov, P. V., and G. I.Burdygina. 1983. The structure and properties of solid gelatin and the principles of their modification. Polymer24:651–66.

LCC. 1981. The fiber structure of leather. London: Leather Conservation Center.

Mecklenburg, M. F.1988. The effects of atmospheric moisture on the mechanical properties of collagen under equilibrium conditions. AIC preprints, 16th Annual Meeting, American Institute for the Conservation, Washington, D.C. 231–42.

NBS. 1951. Preservation of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States. NBS circular 505. Washington, D.C.: National Bureau of Standards.

Poole, J. B., and R.Reed. 1962. The preparation of leather and parchment by the Dead Sea Scrolls community. Technology and Culture3(1):1–26.

Rebricova, N. L., and N. I.Solovyova. 1987. Electron microscopic and biochemical investigation of parchment. ICOM Committee for Conservation preprints, 8th Triennial Meeting, Sydney1197–1200.

Reed, R., 1975. The nature and making of parchment. Leeds, England: Elmete Press.

Scott, J., 1986. Molecules that keep you in shape. New Scientist111(1518):49–53.

Sobel, H., and E.Hansen. 1989. Environmentally produced changes in historic proteins. A: Collagen. Text of poster presented at the Third Annual Symposium of the Protein Society, Seattle, Wash.

Susi, J., J. S.Ard, and R. J.Carroll. 1971. Hydration and denaturation of collagen as observed by infrared spectroscopy. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association66 (11):508–19.

Valentin, N., M.Lindstorm, and F.Preusser. 1990. Microbial control by low oxygen and low relative humidity environment. Studies in Conservation35:222–30.

Vorst, B., 1986. Parchment making: Ancient and modern. Fine Print12(4):209–11, 220–22.

Weiner, S., Z.Kustanovich, E.Gil-Av, and W.Traub. 1980. Dead Sea Scroll parchments: Unfolding of the collagen molecules and racemization of aspartic acid. Nature287:820–24.

Werner, A. E., 1968. The conservation of leather, wood, bone and ivory, and archival materials. In The conservation of cultural property with special reference to tropical conditions. Paris: UNESCO. 265–90.

Wilson, W. K., 1986. Guidelines for environmental conditions for storage of paper-based nonphotographic records in archives and libraries. (Unpublished typescript). 1401 Kurtz Rd., McLean, Va. 22101.

Witnauer, L. P., and W. E.Palm. 1968. Influence of cyclic conditioning on the hydrothermal stability of leather.Journal of American Leather Chemists Association63:333–45.

Young, G. S., 1990. Microscopical hydrothermal stability measurements of skin and semi-tanned leather. ICOM Committee for Conservation preprints, 8th Triennial Meeting, Dresden. 19(2):626–31.


ERIC F. HANSEN graduated from the University of California at Irvine in 1980 with an M.S. in organic chemistry and joined the Getty Conservation Institute in 1985. In his current position as an associate scientist he is pursuing his interests in the environmentally induced deterioration of synthetic and natural organic materials (including collagen, fibroin and keratin), the conservation of ethnographic and archaeological objects, and the analysis of the effects of treatment parameters on the final physical and optical properties of treated objects. Address: Getty Conservation Institute, 4503 Glencoe Ave., Marina del Rey, Calif. 90292.

STEVE N. LEE graduated from University of California, Los Angeles, in 1991 with a B.S. in biology with a molecular, cellular, and developmental emphasis. He was employed as a student assistant at the Getty Conservation Institute for three years. He is now currently attending Dartmouth Medical School and hopes to specialize in cardiology. Address: Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, N.H. 03755.

HARRY SOBEL is an investigator of the biochemical process of in-vivo aging with more than 150 publications mainly concerning the effect of age on collagen and connective tissue. He is currently a research associate in the Isotope Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Planterary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, and for the past four years he has been a consultant to the Getty Conservation Institute on the preservation and deterioration of proteinaceous materials. Recent work has focused on residual proteins in historic bone. His interests include the effect of the environment on proteins under ambient conditions and the analysis of proteins for conservation, art historical, and archaeometric interests. Address: Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics Laboratory, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 90024

Copyright 1992 American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works