CORROSION MECHANISMS FOR COPPER AND SILVER OBJECTS IN NEAR-SURFACE ENVIRONMENTS
MICHAEL B. McNEIL, & BRENDA J. LITTLE
Banister, F. A.1952. An unusual synthesis of acanthite crystals. Paper presented at the Mineralogical Society of London Meeting. Documented in the Ford-Fleischer files, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.
Battersby, B. L.1988. Sulphate-reducing bacteria. In Methods of aquatic bacteriology, ed.B.Austin. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 269–99.
Barton, M. D.1980. The Ag-Au-S system. Economic Geology75:303–16.
Bauer, R.1988. Sulfide corrosion of silver contacts during satellite storage. U.S. Air Force report SD-TR-88-53/AD-1196 217 (unclassified).
Biestek, T., and M.Drys. 1987. Corrosion products forming on silver in various corrosive environments (in Polish). Powlocki Ochronne (Warsaw) 9:2–5.
Birss, V. I., and G. A.Wright. 1981. The potentiodynamic formation and reduction of a silver sulfide monolayer on a silver electrode in aqueous sulfide solutions. Electrochimica Acta27:1–7.
Buchwald, V. F.1977. The mineralogy of iron meteorites. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (London) A286:453–91.
Buchwald, V. F., and R. S.Clarke, Jr.1989. Corrosion of Fe-Ni alloys by Cl-containing akageneite (beta-FeOOH): The Antarctic meteorite case. American Mineralogist74:656–67.
Campbell, G. D., F. J.Lincoln, G. P.Power, and I. M.Ritchie. 1982. The anodic oxidation of silver in sulfide solutions. Australian Journal of Chemistry35:1079–85.
Daubrée, G. A.1862. Contemporary formation of copper pyrite by the action of hot springs at Bagnes-de-Bigorre. Bulletin Societé Géologique. 19:529.
Djurle, S.1958. An x-ray study of the system Ag-Cu-S. Acta Chemica Scandinavica12:1427–36.
Duncan, S. J., and H.Ganiaris. 1987. Some sulphide corrosion products on copper alloys and lead alloys from London waterfront sites. In Recent advances in the conservation and analysis of artifacts, ed.J.Black. London: Summer Schools Press, University of London. 109–18.
Fabrizi, M., H.Ganiaris, S.Tarling, and D. A.Scott. 1989. The occurrence of sampleite, a complex copper phosphate, as a corrosion product on copper alloy objects from Memphis, Egypt. Studies in Conservation34:45–51.
Fisher, W. W., and A. C., Lasaga. 1981. Irreversible thermodynamics in petrology. In Reviews in Mineralogy. Vol. 8, Kinetics of geochemical processes. Washington, D.C.: Mineralogical Society of America.
Garrels, R. M., and J. C.Christ. 1965. Solutions, minerals, and equilibria. San Francisco: Freeman, Cooper.
Geilmann, W.1956. Leaching of bronzes in sand deposits (in German). Angewandte Chemie68:201–11.
Gettens, R. J.1963a. The corrosion products of metal antiquities. In Annual report to the trustees of the Smithsonian Institution for 1963. 547–68.
Gettens, R. J.1963b. Addendum to Mineral alteration products on ancient metal objects (with supplement). International Council of Museums Committee for Scientific Museum Laboratories. Moscow. 63/29.
Gettens, R. J.1969. The Freer Chinese bronzes. Vol. 2, Technical studies. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, Freer Gallery of Art.
Goldschmidt, J.1953. A simplexity principle. Journal of Geology61:539–51.
deGouvernain, M.1875. Sulfiding of copper and iron by a prolonged stay in the thermal spring at Bourbon l'Archambault. Comptes Rendus80:1297–1300.
Hack, H., H.Shih, and H. W.Pickering. 1986. Role of the corrosion product film in the corrosion protection of Cu-Ni alloys in seawater. In Surfaces, inhibition, and passivation., ed.E.McCafferty and R. J.Brodd. Pennington, N.J.: Electrochemical Society. 355–67.
Heimann, R. B.1989. Assessing the technology of ancient pottery: The use of ceramic phase diagrams. Archeomaterials31:123–48.
Kato, C., and H. W.Pickering. 1984. A rotating disk study of the corrosion behavior of Cu-9·4Ni-1·7Fe alloy in air-saturated aqueous NaCl solution. Journal of the Electrochemical Society131:1219–24.
Kato, C., H. W.Pickering, and J. E.Castle. 1984. Effect of sulfide on corrosion of Cu-9·4Ni-1·7Fe alloy in aqueous NaCl solution. Journal of the Electrochemical Society131:225–12.
Kracek, F. C.1946. Phase relations in the system silver-sulfur and the transitions in silver sulfide. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union27:367–74.
Little, B.J., P. A.Wagner, W. G.Characklis, and W.Lee. 1990. Microbial corrosion. In Biofilms, ed.W. G.Characklis and K. C.Marshall. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 635–70.
Lucey, V. F.1967. Mechanism of pitting corrosion of copper in supply waters, British Corrosion Journal2:175–85.
McNeil, M. B., J.Jones, and B. J.Little. 1991. Mineralogical fingerprints for corrosion processes induced by sulfate-reducing bacteria. NACE Paper no. 580. National Association of Corrosion Engineers.
Miller, J.D.A., and A. K.Tiller. 1970. Microbial corrosion of buried and immersed metal. In Microbial aspects of metallurgy, ed.J.D.A.Miller. New York: American Elsevier. 61–106.
Mohr, D. W. and M. B.McNeil. 1992. Use of modified log-activity diagrams to elucidate type 1 pitting of copper within chloride-bearing waters. Journal of Nuclear Materials190:329–42.
Mond, L., and G.Cuboni. 1893. On the nature of antique bronze patina (in Italian). Atti de la reale Accademia dei Lincei, 5th ser.2:498–99.
Mor, E. D., and A. M.Beccaria. 1975. Behaviour of copper in artificial seawater containing sulphides. British Corrosion Journal10:33–38.
North, N. A. and I. D., MacLeod. 1986. Corrosion of metals. In Conservation of archaeological objects, ed.C.Pearson. London: Butterworths. 69–98.
North, R. F., and M. J.Pryor. 1970. The influence of corrosion product structure on the corrosion rate of Cu-Ni alloys. Corrosion Science10:297–311.
Pollard, A. M., R. G.Thomas, and P. A.Williams. 1989. Synthesis and stabilities of basic copper(II) chlorides atacamite, paratacamite, and botallackite. Mineralogical Magazine53:557–63.
Pope, D. H.1985. MIC in U.S. industries: Detection and prevention. In Proceedings of the Argentine U.S. Workshop on Biodeterioration. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Aquatec Quimica. (CONICET-NSF) 105–18.
Pope, D. H.1986. A study of microbiologically influenced corrosion in nuclear power plants and a practical guide for countermeasures. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute.
Postgate, J. R.1979. The sulphate-reducing bacteria. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pourbaix, M.1966. Atlas of electrochemical equilibria in aqueous solutions. Houston: National Association of Corrosion Engineers.
Reiber, S. H.1989. Copper plumbing surfaces. Journal of the American Waterworks Association81:114–22.
Roy, R., A. J.Majumdar, and C. W.Hulbe. 1959. The Ag2S and Ag2Se transitions as geologic thermometers. Economic Geology54:1278–80.
Sato, S.1982. Case studies in pitting corrosion failures of copper tubes in hot water. Corrosion Engineering (Japan) 31:3–11.
Scott, D. A.1985. Periodic corrosion phenomena in bronze antiquities. Studies in Conservation30:49–57.
Scott, D. A.1990a. Bronze disease: A review of some chemical problems and the role of relative humidity. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation29:193–206.
Scott, D. A.1990b. Private communication. Getty Conservation Institute.
Shcherbina, V. V.1978. The geochemistry of monovalent sulfides (in Russian). Geokhimiya10:1444–51.
Sinclair, J. D.1982. The tarnishing of silver by organic sulfur vapors. Journal of the Electrochemical Society129:33–40.
Swartzendruber, L. J., L. H.Bennett, and M. B.Mc-Neil. 1973. On the electron configuration theory of marine corrosion. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Marine Corrosion and Fouling. Washington D.C.: National Bureau of Standards. 410–26
Syrett, B. C.1977. Accelerated corrosion of copper in flowing pure water contaminated with oxygen and sulfide. Corrosion33:257–62.
Syrett, B. C.1981. The mechanism of accelerated corrosion of copper-nickel alloys in sulphide-polluted seawater. Corrosion Science21:187–209.
Volpe, L., and P.J.Peterson. 1989. The atmospheric sulfidation of copper in a tubular corrosion reactor. Corrosion Science29:1179–86.
Wagman, D. D., W. H.Evans, V. B.Parker, R. H.Schumm, I.Halow, S. M.Bailey, K. L.Chumey, and R. L.Nuttall. 1982. The NBS tables of chemical thermodynamic properties: Selected values for inorganic and C1 and C2 organic substances in SI units. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 11, supplement #2.
Walker, G. D.1977. An SEM and microanalytical study of in-service dezincification of brass. Corrosion33:252–56.
Woods, T. L. and R. M.Garrels. 1966. Phase relations of some copper hydroxy minerals. Economic Geology81:1989–2007.
Zen, E.-A.1966. Construction and pressure-temperature diagrams for multicomponent systems after the method of Schreinemakers geometric approach. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1225.
Zolotarev, E. I., A. P.Pchel'mikov, Ya. B.Skuratnick, M. A.Dembrovskii, N. I.Khokhlov, and V. V.Losev. 1987. Kinetics of dissolution of copper-nickel alloys, anodic dissolution of Cu-30%Ni under steady state conditions (in Russian). Zashchita Metallov23:922–29.
MICHAEL B. McNEIL, B.A., M.A., Ph.D., is presently a metallurgist, Office of Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. From 1987 to 1991 he was at the Naval Coastal Systems Center, Panama City, Fla. His principal research interest is the interpretation of mineralogical and morphological observations to obtain mechanistic information on long-term corrosion processes, especially those arising from biological processes. Address: Office of Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D. C. 20555.
BRENDA J. LITTLE, B. S., Ph.D., is a research chemist for the Naval Research Laboratory. Her research is directed toward the investigation of microbiologically influenced corrosion of metals and alloys in marine environments. She is the author of numerous journal articles, technical papers, and book chapters on the subject. Address: Naval Research Laboratory, U. S. Navy, Stennis Space Center, Miss. 39529-5004.