JAIC 1993, Volume 32, Number 1, Article 2 (pp. 15 to 21)
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 1993, Volume 32, Number 1, Article 2 (pp. 15 to 21)

THE CONSERVATION OF IMMOVABLE CULTURAL PROPERTY: ETHICAL AND PRACTICAL DILEMMAS

FRANK G. MATERO



NOTES

1. Over the past 25 years, training in architectural conservation has grown from programs developed for midcareer professionals such as those at the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM), begun in 1965–66, and the Institute in Advanced Architectural Studies at the University of York, begun in 1971, to university graduate programs with a specialization in technical conservation such as those at the University of Pennsylvania and Columbia University (ICCROM 1983).

2. Significance may be defined categorically by values. These include associative or symbolic value, informational value, aesthetic value, and economic value. (Lipe 1988)

3. Such approaches have been adopted over time with varying degrees of success, especially for ruins and archaeological sites protected beneath or within shelters, such as Casa Grande, Arizona, and Piazza Armerina, Sicily, Italy, or relocated monuments such as Abu Simbel, Egypt, and the horses of San Marco, Venice, Italy (Stubbs 1984).

4. In 1980, the title architectural conservator was officially adopted by the North Atlantic Region of the National Park Service as a recognized position distinct from historical architect and exhibit specialist.



REFERENCES

AIC. 1979. Code of ethics and standards of practice. 1967, 1963. Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works.

Appelbaum, B.1987. Criteria for treatment: Reversibility. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation26:65–73.

Australia ICOMOS. 1988. Australia ICOMOS charter for the conservation of places of cultural significance (Burra Charter). 1981.

Beale, A.1985. The varying role of the conservator in the care of outdoor monuments: Ethical dilemmas. In Sculptural monuments in an outdoor environment, ed.V.Naudé. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. 39–50.

Brandi, C.1977. Teoria del restauro.Torino: Giulio Einaudi.

Erder, C.1986. Our architectural heritage: From consciousness to conservation.Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.

ICCROM. 1983. International meeting of coordinators of training in architectural conservation. Rome: International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and the Restoration of Cultural Property.

Lipe, W.1978. Value and meaning in cultural resources. In Material culture and the study of American life, ed.I.Quimby. New York: W. W. Norton. 1–10.

Ruskin, J.1988. The lamp of memory. In The seven lamps of architecure.1849. Reprint. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.

Stubbs, J. 1984. Protection and presentation of excavated structures. In Conservation on archaeological excavations, ed.N. P. StanleyPrice. Rome: International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property. 79–89.

Timmons, S., ed.1976. Preservation and conservation: Principles and practices.Washington, D.C.: Preservation Press.

Tschudi-Madsen, S.1976. Restoration and anti-restoration.Oslo: Universiters Forlaget.

UNESCO. 1978. International charter for the conservation and restoration of monuments and sites (Venice Charter). 1964. In Erder 1986.

Viollet-le-Duc, E. E.1980. The foundations of architecture.1854. Trans. K.D. Whitehead. New York: George Braziller.


AUTHOR INFORMATION

FRANK G. MATERO is an associate professor of architecture in the Graduate Program in Historic Preservation of the University of Pennsylvania and director of the Architectural Conservation Laboratory. He is also a lecturer at the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) in Rome. From 1981 to 1990 he was assistant professor of architecture and from 1985 director of the Center for Preservation Research in the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation of Columbia University. He received his M.S. from the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation of Columbia University in 1978 and attended the certificate program in conservation at the Conservation Center at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, from 1981 to 1984. His teaching and research are focused on the history of building technology and the conservation of historic building materials, in particular on stone and architectural surface finishes. He is a professional associate of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works and a member of the Advisory Committee of the International Masonry Institute. Address: Graduate Program in Historic Preservation, 115 Meyerson Hall, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 19104–6311.


Copyright © 1993 American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works