THE HISTORY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SCHREGER PATTERN IN PROBOSCIDEAN IVORY CHARACTERIZATION
EDGARD O'NIEL ESPINOZA, & MARY-JACQUE MANN
Ivory refers to commercially significant teeth or tusks large enough to be carved or scrim-shawed (superficially inscribed). There are numerous sources of ivory (Espinoza and Mann 1991), but elephant ivory, formerly considered the only “true” ivory (Owen 1856; Hanausek 1907; Penniman 1952) is by far the most recognized type. Each ivory type is morphologically distinct.
Proboscidean ivory is distinguishable from other ivory forms by the presence of a unique pattern of crossing lines visible in transverse tusk sections. This pattern is a reflection of underlying micromorphology and the focus of a nondestructive forensic method for morphologically differentiating between elephant and mammoth ivories.