THE HISTORY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SCHREGER PATTERN IN PROBOSCIDEAN IVORY CHARACTERIZATION
EDGARD O'NIEL ESPINOZA, & MARY-JACQUE MANN
Bruemmer, F.1989. Arctic treasures. Natural History98:39–46.
Brown, G., and A. J.Moule. 1977. The structural characteristics of elephant ivory. Australian Gemmologist13:13–17.
Espinoza, E. O., and M. J.Mann. 1991. Identification guide for ivory and ivory substitutes. Baltimore, Md.: World Wildlife Fund and Conservation Foundation.
Espinoza, E. O., M. J.Mann, J. P.LeMay, and K. A.Oakes. 1990. A method for differentiating modern from ancient Proboscidean ivory in worked objects. Current Research in the Pleistocene7:81–83.
Fenton, C. L., and M. A.Fenton. 1958. The fossil book. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday.
Hanausek, T. F.1907. The microscopy of technical products, trans. A. L.Wilton. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Höhnel, V.1892. Beitrag zur kenntniss der technisch ver wendeten elfenbeinarten. Zeitschrift für Nahrungsmittel-Untersuchung, Hygiene und Waarenkunde7:141–44, 9:183–88, 10:205–11. German.
Miles, A.E.W., and A.Boyde. 1961. Observations on the structure of elephant ivory [abstract]. Journal of Anatomy95: 450.
Miles, A. E. W., and J. W.White. 1960. Ivory. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine53:775–80.
Miller, W. D.1890. Studies on the anatomy and pathology of the tusks of the elephant. Dental Cosmos32:337–48.
Obermayer, F.1881. Beitrag zur kenntnis des zahnbeines vom elefanten, nilpferd, walross und narwal. Verlag des Vereines der Wiener Handels-Akademie102–13. German.
Owen, R.1845. Odontography. London.
Owen, R.1854. The principal forms of the skeleton and of the teeth. Philadelphia, Pa.: Blanchard and Lea.
Owen, R.1856. Ivory and the teeth of commerce. Journal of the Royal Society of Arts5:65–71.
Penniman, T. K.1952. Pictures of ivory and other animal teeth, bone and antler. Occasional Paper on Technology5:4–40.
Schreger, B.N.G.1800. Beitrag zur geschichte der zähne. Beitrage für die Zergliederungskunst1:1–7. German.
Tolmachoff, I. P.1929. The carcasses of the mammoth and rhinoceros found in the frozen ground of Siberia. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society23:12–14.
Vereshchagin, N. K.1974. The mammoth “cemeteries” of North-East Siberia. Polar Record17:3–12.
EDGARD O'NIEL ESPINOZA is the chief chemist and Criminalistics Section chief at the National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory in Ashland, Oregon. His areas of expertise are organic chemistry, general criminalistics, wildlife toxicology, and ivory identification. Along with administrative duties and the examination of evidence submitted in connection with crimes against wildlife, Espinoza maintains a program of research and methods development in the chemical-instrumental identification of parts and products from endangered and protected species. He holds a B.S. in medical technology from Loma Linda University in California, and M.P.H and Dr. P.H. degrees in forensic science from the University of California, Berkeley. Espinoza was formerly an assistant professor of forensic sciences at Sacramento State University in California and a private practice forensic consultant with a specialization in homicide cases. Address: National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory, 1490 E. Main St., Ashland, Oreg. 97520.
MARY-JACQUE MANN is a senior forensic scientist in the Criminalistics Section of the National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory in Ashland, Oregon. Her areas of expertise are scanning electron microscopy, trace evidence analysis, firearms comparisons, and ivory identification. Mann has a bachelor's degree in biology from Radford University in Virginia and an M.F.S. in forensic science from George Washington University in Washington, D.C. She was a scanning electron microscopist with the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History for 10 years before she became interested in the forensic sciences. Immediately prior to accepting her current position, she was a forensic analyst for six years with the New Mexico State Police Crime Laboratory in Santa Fe, N.M. Address: National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory, 1490 E. Main St., Ashland, Oreg. 97520.