JAIC 1994, Volume 33, Number 1, Article 3 (pp. 33 to 45)
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 1994, Volume 33, Number 1, Article 3 (pp. 33 to 45)

THE FRAKTUR: ITS HISTORY AND A CONSERVATION CASE STUDY

TED STANLEY



NOTES

. Ammonia most likely acts to dissociate the molecules of starch-based adhesives. The mild reaction increases the swelling and viscosity of the adhesive, thus making it easier to remove. Higher pH levels of the ammonia will increase the activity. In this respect, pH appears to be a determining factor in the partial depolymerization of the adhesive. The effect is similar to that of sodium tetraborate, which is used in the manufacture of certain starch-related adhesives to help increase swelling and viscosity. These adhesives have specific applications in the paper products industry.


NOTES

. Ethanol is highly soluble in water. This is due to the hydrogen bonds that are formed when the two molecules are mixed. Increasing the concentration of ethanol in the solution will protect water-sensitive pigments during the washing operation of an object.


NOTES

. Marion Dirda, a former Library of Congress senior paper conservator, introduced the technique to the author in the late 1970s and early 1980s.


NOTES

. Since the object's expansion was limited by the use of ethanol and water solution for humidification, it was important that the blotter be humidified in a similar manner. For instance, humidifying the blotter with only water might have allowed more moisture than desirable to be absorbed into the object on contact with the blotter. Such additional moisture in the support might affect water-soluble pigment and cause the support to expand. Not humidifying the blotter at all or humidifying it too little would have caused it to cockle immediately upon contact with the object by drawing moisture from the object. The cockled blotter would have quickly formed tight creases once the vacuum pressure from the table was increased, thereby creasing the object as well.



REFERENCES

Banik, G., and J.Ponahlo.1982–83. Some aspects of degradation phenomena of paper caused by green copper-containing pigments. Paper Conservator7: 3–7.

Brothers and Lane, Inc. 1980. Communication to the Library of Congress. Elk Grove Village, Ill. 60007.

Conner, P., and J.Roberts.1988. Pennsylvania German fraktur and printed broadsides. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 11, 16.

Ebert, J., and K.Ebert.1975. American folk painters. New York: Scribner's. 181.

Feller, R. L.1975. Studies on the photochemical stability of thermoplastic resins.ICOM Committee for Conservation Preprints, 4th Triennial Meeting, Venice, 75/22/4 1–11.

Ford, A. E.1949. Pictorial folk art, New England to California. Woodstock, Vt.: Studio Publications. 32–33.

Gettens, R. J., and G. L.Stout.1966. Painting materials: A short encyclopedia. 1942. Reprint.New York: Dover Publications. 115.

Hunter, D.1978. Papermaking: The history and technique of an ancient craft. 1947. Reprint.New York: Dover Publications. 492.

Lichten, F.1958. Fraktur: The illuminated manuscripts of the Pennsylvania Dutch. Philadelphia: Free Library of Philadelphia. 5, 24.

Jarowenko, W.1977. Starch based adhesives. In Handbook of adhesives, 2d ed., ed.I.Skeist.New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 192–211.

Thomas, I.1970. The history of printing in America. New York: Weathervane Books.

Weiser, F. S.1973. Fraktur, Pennsylvania German folk art. Ephrata, Pa.: Science Press.



OTHER SOURCES

Banik, G.1989. Discoloration of green copper pigments in manuscripts and works of graphic art.Restaurator10(2): 61–73.

Browning, B. L.1977. Analysis of paper. 2d ed.New York: Marcel Dekker.

Harley, R. D.1982. Artist' pigments, c. 1600–1835. 2d ed.London: Butterworth Scientific.

Huffman, M. M.1982. Lutheranism takes root in the settlement of Pennsylvania, 1682–1982. Whitney, Pa.: Morna M. Huffman.

Hughs, S.1978. Washi, the world of Japanese paper. Tokyo: Kodansha International.

Weiser, F. S.1980. Baptismal certificates and gravemarkers: Pennsylvania German folk art at the beginning and at the end of life. In Perspectives on American folk art, ed.I.M.G.Quimby and S.T.Swank.New York: Norton. 135–61.

Yoder, D., V.Gunnion, and C.Hopf.1969. Pennsylvania German fraktur and color drawings. Landis Valley, Pa.: Landis Valley Associates.



SOURCES OF MATERIALS

Acrylic resins, spun-bonded polyester fabrics

Conservation Materials 1165 Marietta Way, Sparks, Nev. 89431

Blotter paper

Paper Technologies, 929 Calle Negocio, Unit D, San Clemente, Calif. 92673

Gore-Tex barrier laminate

W. L. Gore and Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 1550, Elkton, Md. 21922–1550

Japanese paper, kizukishi

BookMakers, 6000 66th Ave., Suite 101, Riverdale, Md. 20737

Japanese paper, usui-usu-minogami, tengujo

Hiromi Paper International, 4223 Glencoe Ave. #C–107, Marina del Rey, Calif. 90292

Leafcasting Equipment

Museum Services Corporation, 1107 East Cliff Rd., Burnsville, Minn. 55337

Methyl cellulose

Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich. 48674

Polyester film

Light Impressions, 439 Monroe Ave., Rochester, N.Y. 14607

Wheat paste

Talas, 213 West 35th St., New York, N.Y. 10001


AUTHOR INFORMATION

TED STANLEY is in charge of special collections conservation in the Rare Book and Special Collection Department of the Firestone Library as well as other special libraries at Princeton University. Before arriving at Princeton University, he was a senior paper conservator at the Library of Congress, where he was a staff member from 1976 to 1992. From 1984 to 1985, through the National Endowment for the Arts Fellowships for Museum Professionals Program, he worked on the conservation staffs of the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, France and the Centro Nationale de Conservacion y Restauracion de Bienes Culturales in Madrid, Spain, studying paper conservation. Address: Preservation Office, Firestone Library, Princeton University, One Washington Rd., Princeton, N.J. 08544.


Copyright © 1994 American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works