JAIC 1994, Volume 33, Number 2, Article 4 (pp. 115 to 129)
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 1994, Volume 33, Number 2, Article 4 (pp. 115 to 129)

THIN-SECTION PETROGRAPHY IN STUDIES OF CULTURAL MATERIALS

CHANDRA L. REEDY




REFERENCES

Adams, A. E., W. S.MacKenzie, and C.Guilford. 1984. Atlas of sedimentary rocks under the microscope. New York: John Wiley.

Agresti, A.1990. Categorical data analysis. New York: John Wiley.

Allman, M., and D. F.Lawrence. 1972. Geological laboratory techniques. New York: Arco.

Bachmann, H-G.1982. The identification of slags from archaeological sites. London: Institute of Archaeology.

Barger, M. S., D. K.Smith, and W. B.White. 1989. Characterization of corrosion products on old protective glass, especially daguerreotype cover glasses. Journal of Materials Science24:1343–56.

Barnett, W. K.1991. Optical petrography as a tool for examining gypsum and lime plaster pyrotechnology. Journal of Field Archaeology18:253–55.

Basu, A.1985. Reading provenance from detrital quartz. In Provenance of arenites, ed. G. G.Zuffa. Boston: D. Reidel Publishing. 231–47.

Betts, I.1991. Thin-section and neutron activation analysis of brick and tile from York and surrounding sites. In Recent developments in ceramic petrology, ed. A.Middleton and I.Freestone. London: British Museum Research Laboratory. 39–55.

Chayes, F.1956. Petrographic modal analysis. New York: John Wiley.

Courtois, L.1962–63. Examen minéralogique de quelques roches de monuments Grèco-Bouddhiques. Arts Asiatiques9:107–13.

Dickinson, W. R., and R.ShutlerJr.1974. Probable Fijian origin of quartzose temper sands in prehistoric pottery from Tonga and the Marquesas. Science185:454–57.

Dickinson, W. R., and R.ShutlerJr.1979. Petrography of sand tempers in Pacific Islands potsherds: Summary. Geological Society of America Bulletin90(1):993–95.

Dickinson, W. R., J.Takayama, E. A.Snow, and R.ShutlerJr.1990. Sand temper of probable Fijian origin in prehistoric potsherds from Tuvalu. Antiquity64:307–12.

Donahue, J., D. R.Watters, and S.Millspaugh. 1990. Thin section petrography of Northern Lesser Antilles ceramics. Geoarchaeology5(3):229–54.

Farnsworth, M.1964. Greek pottery: A mineralogical study. American Journal of Archaeology68:221–28.

Felts, W. M.1942. A petrographic examination of potsherds from ancient Troy. American Journal of Archaeology46:237–44.

Folk, R. L.1980. Petrology of sedimentary rocks. Austin: Texas Hemphill's Book Store.

Freestone, I., C.Johns, and T.Potter. 1982. Current research in ceramics: Thin-section studies. London: British Museum Research Laboratory.

Garrett, E. M.1986. A petrographic analysis of Black Mesa ceramics. In Spatial organization and exchange, ed. S.Plog. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 114–42.

Germann, K., et al. 1988. Provenance characteristics of Cycladic (Paros and Naxos) marbles: A multivariate geological approach. In Classical marble: Geochemistry, technology, trade, ed. N.Herz and M.Waelkens. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 251–62.

Goodhew, P. J.1988. Electron microscopy and analysis. New York: Taylor and Francis.

Goren, Y., and P.Goldberg. 1991. Petrographic thin sections and the development of Neolithic plaster production in northern Israel. Journal of Field Archaeology18(1):131–37.

Harrell, J. A.1992. Ancient Egyptian limestone quarries: A petrological study. Archaeometry34(2):195–211.

Herz, N.1955. Petrofabrics and classical archeology. American Journal of Science253:299–305.

Hipkiss, E. J., W. J.Young, and G. H.Edgell. 1937. A modified tomb monument of the Italian Renaissance. Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts35:83–90.

Hodges, H.W.M.1963. The examination of ceramic materials in thin section. In The scientist and the archaeologist, ed. E.Pyddoke. New York: Roy. 101–10.

Holmes, L. L., C. T.Little, and E. V.Sayre. 1986. Elemental characterization of medieval limestone sculpture from Parisian and Burgundian sources. Journal of Field Archaeology13(4):419–38.

Hutchison, C. S.1974. Laboratory handbook of petrographic techniques. New York: John Wiley.

Hyman, D. S.1970. Precolumbian cements. Ph.D. diss., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.

Keith, V., and M.Cooper. 1974. Nonparametric design and analysis. Ottowa: University of Ottowa Press.

Kempe, D.R.C.1982. Nature and source of the Gandhara sculptural schist. Journal of Archaeological Science9:25–28.

Kempe, D.R.C.1986. Gandhara sculptural schist: Proposed source. Journal of Archaeological Science13:79–87.

Kempe, D.R.C., and A. P.Harvey, eds. 1983. The petrology of archaeological artefacts. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Kerr, P. F.1977. Optical mineralogy. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Klemm, D. D., and R.Klemm. 1991. Mortar evolution in the Old Kingdom of Egypt. In Archaeometry '90, ed. E.Pernicka and G. A.Wagner. Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag. 445–54.

Koh Choo, C. K.1992. A preliminary scientific study of traditional Korean celadons and their modern developments. In Materials issues in art and archaeology III, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 267. ed. P. B.Vandiver, J. R.Druzik, G. S.Wheeler, and I. C.Freestone. Pittsburgh: Materials Research Society. 633–38.

Kozlowski, R., et al. 1990. Decay and conservation of Pinczów porous limestone. Part 1. Lithology and weathering. Studies in Conservation35:205–21.

Kuntze, R. A.1984. The chemistry and technology of gypsum. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials.

Lahanier, C.1976. Laboratoire de recherche des musées de France examen en laboratoire d'une tête de roi barbare. Arts Asiatiques32:80–81.

Lazzarini, L.1990. Rosso Antico and other red marbles used in antiquity: A characterization study. In Marble: Art historical and scientific perspectives in ancient sculpture, ed. M.True and J.Podany. Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum. 237–52.

Lazzarini, L., G.Moschini, and B. M.Stievano. 1980. A contribution to the identification of Italian, Greek and Anatolian marbles through a petrological study and evaluation of ca/sr ratio. Archaeometry22(2):173–83.

Lepsius, G. R.1890. Griechische Marmorstudien. Berlin: Konige.

Loretto, M. H.1984. Electron beam analysis of materials. New York: Chapman and Hall.

MacKenzie, W. S., C. H.Donaldson, and C.Guilford. 1982. Atlas of igneous rocks and their textures. New York: John Wiley.

MacKenzie, W. S., and C.Guilford. 1981. Atlas of rock-forming minerals in thin section. Essex: Longman.

MacMahon, D. A.1988. Archeological collections management at the Saugus iron works national historic site. Boston: U.S. Department of the Interior.

Marinos, G. P.1948. Notes on the structure of Greek marbles. American Journal of Science246: 386–89.

Martinez, G. M., and E. N.Martinez. 1991. Characterization of stone from the Metropolitan Cathedral and from the facade of the National Museum at Tepotzotlán, Mexico. Studies in Conservation36:99–110.

Matthew, A. J., A. J.Woods, and C.Oliver. 1991. Spots before the eyes: New comparison charts for visual percentage estimation in archaeological material. In Recent developments in ceramic petrology, ed. A.Middleton and I.Freestone. London: British Museum Research Laboratory. 211–64.

Meyers, P., and L.vanZelst. 1977. Neutron activation analysis of limestone objects: A pilot study. Radiochimica Acta24:197–204.

Middleton, A. P., I. C.Freestone, and M. N.Leese. 1985. Textural analysis of ceramic thin sections: Evaluation of grain sampling procedures. Archaeometry27(1):64–74.

Middleton, A. P., M. N.Leese, and M. R.Cowell. 1991. Computer-assisted approaches to the grouping of ceramic fabrics. In Recent developments in ceramic petrology, ed. A.Middleton and I.Freestone. London: British Museum Research Laboratory. 265–76.

Middleton, A., and I.Freestone, eds. 1991. Recent developments in ceramic petrology. London: British Museum Research Laboratory.

Milam, B., C. L.Reedy, and C.Sussman. 1988. Technical analysis of Renaissance bronzes for provenance studies: Pilot project. Technical report submitted to the Getty Conservation Institute, Marina del Rey, Calif.

Moens, L. et al. 1988. A multi-method approach to the identification of white marbles used in antique artefacts. In Classical marble: Geochemistry, technology, trade, ed. N.Herz and M.Waelkens. Dordrecht: Kluwer: 243–50.

Moens, L., et al. 1989. Chemical and petrographical identification of white marbles from the Mediterranean area. In Proceedings of the 25th International Archaeometry Symposium, ed. Y.Maniatis. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 613–25.

Moens, L., et al. 1990. Scientific provenance determination of ancient white marble sculptures using petrographic, chemical, and isotopic data. In Marble: Art historical and scientific perspectives in ancient sculpture, ed. M.True and J.Podany. Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum. 111–24.

Morton, A. W.1985. Heavy minerals in provenance studies. In Provenance of arenites, ed. G. G.Zuffa. Boston: D. Reidel Publishing. 249–77.

Newman, R.1984. The stone sculptures of India. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Art Museums.

Newman, R.1988. The materials of Hoysala temples and sculptures: A petrographic characterization. Archaeometry30:120–31.

Newman, R.1990. Weathering layers and the authentication of marble objects. In Marble: Art historical and scientific perspectives on ancient sculpture, ed. M.True and J.Podany. Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum. 263–82.

Newman, R.1991. A compositional and microstructural study of Korean celadon glazes of the 11th to 15th centuries. In Materials issues in art and archaeology, II, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 185, ed. P. B.Vandiver, J.Druzik, and G. S.Wheeler. Pittsburgh: Materials Research Society. 429–40.

Newman, R.1992. Applications of petrography and electron microprobe analysis to the study of Indian stone sculpture. Archaeometry34(2):163–74.

Peacock, D.P.S.1970. The scientific analysis of ancient ceramics: A review. World Archaeology1: 375–89.

Phillips, W. R.1971. Mineral optics: Principles and techniques. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.

Porai-Koshits, E. A., ed. 1973. Phase-separation phenomena in glasses. New York: Consultants Bureau.

Reed, S.J.B.1993. Electron microprobe analysis. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press.

Reedy, C. L.1991. Petrographic analysis of casting core materials for provenance studies of copper alloy sculptures. Archeomaterials5(2):121–63.

Reedy, C. L.1992a. Gandhara and related terracotta technologies. In The crossroads of Asia, ed. E.Errington and J.Cribb. Cambridge, Eng.: Ancient India and Iran Trust. 278–80.

Reedy, C. L.1992b. Petrographic analysis of Gandhara stone sculptures. In The crossroads of Asia, ed. E.Errington and J.Cribb. Cambridge, Eng.: Ancient India and Iran Trust. 264–77.

Reedy, T. J., and C. L.Reedy. 1994. Statistical analysis in conservation science. Archaeometry36(1): 1–23.

Renfrew, C., and J. S.Peacey. 1968. Aegean marble: A petrological study. Annual of the British School at Athens63:45–66.

Roos, P., et al. 1988. Chemical and petrographical characterization of Greek marbles from Pentelikon, Naxos, Paros, and Thasos. In Classical marble: Geochemistry, technology, trade, ed. N.Herz and M.Waelkens. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 263–72.

Rossi-Manaresi, R.1982. Scientific investigation in relation to the conservation of stone. In Science and technology in the service of conservation, ed. N. S.Brommelle and G.Thomson. London: International Institute for Conservation. 39–45.

Saleh, S. A., et al. 1991. Study and consolidation of sandstone temple of Karnak, Luxor, Egypt. Studies in Conservation37:93–104.

Scholle, P. A.1979. A color illustrated guide to constituents, textures, cements, and porosities of sandstones and associated rocks. Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

Shepard, A. C.1942. Rio Grande glazed paint ware: A study illustrating the place of ceramic technological analysis in archaeolgical research. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington.

Simmons, J. H., D. R.Uhlmann, and G. H.Beall, eds. 1982. Nucleation and crystallization in glass. Columbus: American Ceramic Society.

Stoltman, J. B.1989. A quantitative approach to the petrographic analysis of ceramic thin sections. American Antiquity54(1):147–60.

Türkmenoglu, A. G., E. H.Götürk, and E. N.Caner. 1991. The deterioration of tuffs from the Cappadocia region of Turkey. Archaeometry33(2):231–38.

Vagts, L.1993. The preliminary examination of modified colloidal silica as a consolidant for frescoes. Art conservation training programs student papers, 18th annual conference. Kingston, Ontario: Queens University Art Conservation Program.

Washington, H. S.1898. The identification of marbles used in Greek sculpture. American Journal of Archaeology. 2:1–18.

Weiss, L. E.1954. Fabric analysis of some Greek marbles and its applications to archeology. American Journal of Science252:641–62.

Whitbread, I. K.1989. A proposal for the systematic description of thin sections towards the study of ancient ceramic technology. In Archaeometry, ed. Y.Maniatis. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 127–38.

Williams, D. F.1983. Petrology of ceramics. In The petrography of archaeological artefacts, ed. D.R.C.Kempe and A. P.Harvey. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 301–29.

Williams, H., F. J.Turner, and C. M.Gilbert. 1982. Petrography: An introduction to the study of rocks in thin sections. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.

Yardley, B.W.D.1990. Atlas of metamorphic rocks and their textures. New York: John Wiley.

Young, W. J., and B.Ashmole. 1968. The Boston relief and the Ludovisi throne. Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts66:124–66.


AUTHOR INFORMATION

CHANDRA L. REEDY received her Ph.D. from the interdisciplinary Archaeology Program at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her dissertation research focused on materials analysis of art and archaeological objects and on the South Asian region. After serving as associate conservation scientist at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, she joined the faculty of the University of Delaware Art Conservation Department. She coordinates the Art Conservation Research Ph.D. Program and teaches methodology of scientific research, provenance and authenticity studies, archaeological theory, and materials and technology of inorganic objects. Address: Art Conservation Dept., University of Delaware, 303 Old College, Newark, DE 19716.


Copyright © 1994 American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works