A PERSPECTIVE ON THE HISTORY OF THE CONSERVATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL COPPER ALLOYS IN THE UNITED STATES
1. Alfred André was a Parisian restorer who early in this century treated many objects in the Walters collections and other American collections.
2. Nichols had warned in his book that insufficient washing after the electrolytic treatment would cause efflorescences of carbonate of soda to form from the retention of residues of the electrolyte in the pores of the bronze.
Fink, C., and C. H.Eldridge.1923. Efficient method for restoration of antique bronzes badly corroded or crusted over. Unpublished typescript. Walters Art Gallery.
Fink, C., and C. H.Eldridge.1925. The restoration of ancient bronzes and other alloys. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Finkener, A.1905. Electrolytic treatment method described in F. Rathgen, The preservation of antiquities. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press.
Frisch, C.1904. Natural patina and artificial patina. Revue de Chimie Industrielle15:169–74.
Garland, H., and C. O.Bannister. 1927. Ancient Egyptian metallurgy. London: Charles Griffen and Co.
Jedrzejewska, H.1964. The conservation of ancient bronzes. Studies in Conservation9:23–30.
Jedrzejewska, H.1976. A corroded Egyptian bronze: Cleaning and discoveries. Studies in Conservation21:101–14.
Laufer, B.1930. Foreword to Restoration of ancient bronzes and cure of malignant patina, by H. W.Nichols.Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History.
Lucas, A.1932. Antiques: Their restoration and preservation. London: Edward Arnold and Co.
Madsen, H. B.1967. A preliminary note on the use of BTA for stabilizing bronze objects. Studies in Conservation12:163–67.
Nichols, H. W.1930. Restoration of ancient bronzes and cure of malignant patina. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History.
Oddy, W. A., and M. J.Hughes. 1970. The stabilization of “active” bronze and iron antiquities by the use of sodium sesquicarbonate. Studies in Conservation15:183–89.
Organ, R.1961. A new treatment for bronze disease. Museums Journal61:54–56.
Organ, R.1963. The examination and treatment of bronze antiquities. In Recent advances in conservation, ed.G.Thomson. London: Butterworths. 104–10.
Packard, E.1993. Personal communication. Formerly Walters Art Gallery.
Plenderleith, H. J.1934. The preservation of antiquities. London: Museums Association.
Plenderleith, H. J.1956. The conservation of antiquities and works of art. London: Oxford University Press.
Rathgen, F.1905. The preservation of antiquities. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press.
Robinson, E.1925. Introduction to The restoration of ancient bronzes and other alloys, by C.Fink and C. H.Eldridge.New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Rocchi, F.1920. Contribution of the experimental sciences in art and history. Rassegna d'Arte7:258–64.
Scott, A.1921. The cleaning and restoration of museum exhibits (report upon investigation conducted at the British Museum, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research). London: H. M. Stationery Office.
Scott, A.1923. The cleaning and restoration of museum exhibits, 2d report. British Museum, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. London: H. M. Stationery Office.
Ternbach, J.1949. Restoration of ancient bronzes. Museum News26 (17):7–8.
Ternbach, J.1981. Oral history interview by S. Weintraub. Steven Weintraub, Art Preservation Services, New York, N.Y. To be filed with FAIC Oral History Project.
Walters Correspondence. Archives, Walters Art Gallery Conservation Laboratory, Baltimore, Maryland.
Weisser, T.1975. The de-alloying of copper alloys. In Conservation in archaeology and the applied arts. London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. 207–14.
Weisser, T.1987. The use of sodium carbonate as a pre-treatment for difficult-to-stabilize bronzes. In Recent advances in the conservation and analysis of artifacts. London: Summer Schools Press. 105–8.
TERRY DRAYMAN-WEISSER has been director of conservation and technical research at the Walters Art Gallery since 1977. She has a B.A. in art history from Swarthmore College and received a diploma with distinction from the University of London, Institute of Archaeology in the conservation of archaeological materials in 1973. The subject of her thesis was the dealloying of bronze and brass. In addition, she studied metallurgy in the graduate program at Johns Hopkins University. She has worked as site conservator on several archaeological excavations and has lectured and published widely on the deterioration and preservation of metal objects. Address: Walters Art Gallery, 600 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21201.