THE ROLE OF GELATIN IN PAPER PERMANENCE
TIMOTHY BARRETT, & CYNTHEA MOSIER
1. The TAPPI sample size is 1 g. TAPPI oven-dry weight is calculated based on the moisture content of a separate 2 g specimen as determined in accordance with TAPPI 412 (TAPPI 1991c). Our results showed no significant differnce in the % hydroxyproline recovered from paper reference standards that had been dried at 105°C for 12 hours and those that had not been dried.
2. The TAPPI extract is filtered through hardened filter paper.
3. TAPPI hydrolysis conditions are overnight at 110°C.
4. Decolorization with activated charcoal is not used in the TAPPI procedure. Our results showed no significant loss of hydroxyproline from paper reference standards treated with charcoal when run against calibration curve standards made from the same gelatin used to size the paper reference standards.
5. TAPPI evaporation is done at 110°C under nitrogen. We found no significant difference in % hydroxyproline measured in hydroxyproline solutions evaporated under house air at 100-105°C and reconstituted with water and tubes containing the same solutions and not evaporated at all.
6. TAPPI calibration curve hydroxyproline standards are not frozen. Our results showed no significant difference in the absorbances of hydroxyproline standards that had been stored frozen and those that had not. Percent recovery of hydroxyproline from the paper reference standards continued to be similar throughout the batches run, averaging 96 ± 5% over the course of the experiment. Had the concentration of the calibration curve standards been changing, this recovery calculation would have so indicated.
7. The TAPPI procedure requires that three reference standards be tested in triplicate each time a batch is run. The reference standard is a solution of the same glue used to size the paper being analyzed if possible. Otherwise, good-grade hide glue or purified calfskin gelatin are recommended. There is no procedure for preparing paper reference standards. Because we modified early steps, we felt that paper reference standards were necessary in order to monitor the entire procedure.
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TIMOTHY BARRETT is an associate research scientist at the University of Iowa Center for the Book (UICB). As program director for UICB Paper Facilities, his duties include teaching papermaking history and technique at the School of Art and Art History and overseeing research and conservation paper production at a separate center facility. Address: UICB Paper, M109 Oakdale Hall, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242.
CYNTHEA MOSIER received a B.A. in biology from the University of California at Santa Cruz in 1971. Between 1972 and 1988 she served as staff research associate, Chemistry Board of Studies, at the same university. She studied under Timothy Barrett in the classroom for one year and worked as his research associate for an additional year. She is currently an apprentice in book and paper conservation under Pamela Spitzmueller in the Book Conservation Laboratory, University Libraries, University of Iowa.
This paper was presented at the 1994 AIC annual meeting, Book and Paper Specialty Group session, as “The role of gelatin in paper permanence 2” and published in the 1994 AIC Book and Paper Group Annual under the same title. The present version includes additions and revisions. The first work by Barrett on essentially the same topic is listed in the References above (Barrett 1992).