FIBER-SAFE EXTRACTION OF RED MORDANT DYES FROM HAIR FIBERS
ERICA J. TIEDEMANN, & YIQI YANG
SOURCES OF MATERIALSWool used in the cochineal and madder dyeings
Testfabrics Wool Gabardine (worsted) no. 522, Testfabrics, Inc., Middlesex, N.J.Unprocessed madder roots and dried cochineal insects
Earth Guild, Asheville, N.C.
Relbunium-dyed wool yarn
Max Saltzman, Los Angeles, Calif.
Mallinckrodt, Inc., St. Louis, Mo.Cream of tartar leveling agent
Strawberry Fields, Urbana, Ill.Disodium EDTA, biotechnology grade
Amresco, Inc., Cleveland, OhioReagent grade N,N-dimethyl formamide and spectral grade methanol
Fischer Chemical, Fair Lawn, N.J.
Abrahams, D. H., and S. M., Edelstein. 1964. A new method for the analysis of ancient dyed textiles. American Dyestuff Reporter53:19–25.
Adrosko, R. J.1971. Natural dyes and dyeing. New York: Dover Publications.
ASTM 1992a. Standard test method for diameter of wool and other animal fibers by microprojection, D 2130–90. In Annual book of ASTM standards, vol. 7:01, Textiles. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials.
ASTM 1992b. Standard test method for tensile properties of single textile fibers, D 3822-91. In Annual book of ASTM standards, vol. 7:02, Textiles. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials.
Fischer, Ch.-H., M., Bischof, and J. G., Rabe. 1990. Identification of natural and early synthetic textile dyes with HPLC and UV/VIS-spectroscopy by diode array detection. Journal of Liquid Chromatography13:319–31.
Geiss-Mooney, M. E., and H. L., Needles. 1981. Dye analysis of a group of Late Intermediate Period textiles from Ica, Peru. In Preservation of paper and textiles of historic and artistic value II, ed.J. C.Williams. Advances in Chemistry series 193. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. 291–300.
Hofenk-de Graaff, J. H.1969. Natural dyestuffs: Origin, chemical constitution, identification. In ICOM Committee for Conservation Preprints, 2d Plenary Meeting, Amsterdam. Paris: ICOM. 69/16.
Kharbade, B. V., and O. P., Agrawal. 1985. Identification of natural red dyes in old Indian textiles: Evaluation of thin-layer chromatographic systems. Journal of Chromatography347:447–54.
Kiel, E. G., and P. M., Heertjes. 1963a. Metal complexes of alizarin: Part 1, The structure of the calcium-aluminium lake of alizarin. Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists79:21–27.
Kiel, E. G., and P. M., Heertjes. 1963b. Metal complexes of alizarin. Part 2, The structure of some metal complexes of alizarin other than turkey red. Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists79:61–64.
Martoglio, P. A., S. P., Bouffard, A. J., Sommer, J. E., Katon,, and K. A., Jakes. 1990. Unlocking the secrets of the past: The analysis of archaeological textiles and dyes. Analytical Chemistry62:1123A–28A.
Saltzman, M.1978. The identification of dyes in archaeological and ethnographic textiles. In Archaeological chemistry II, ed.G. F.Carter. Advances in Chemistry series 171. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. 172–85.
Saltzman, M.1986. Analysis of dyes in museum textiles; or, You can't tell a dye by its color. In Textile conservation symposium in honor of Pat Reves, ed.C. C.McLean and P.Connel. Los Angeles: Conservation Center, Los Angeles County Museum of Art. 32–39.
Saltzman, M.1992. Identifying dyes in textiles. American Scientist80:474–81.
Saltzman, M., A. M., Keay,, and J., Christensen. 1963. The identification of colorants in ancient textiles. Dyestuffs44:241–51.
Schweppe, H.1986. Identification of dyes in historic textile materials. In Historic textile and paper materials: Conservation and characterization, ed.H. L.Needles and S. H.Zeronian. Advances in Chemistry series 212. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. 153–74.
Schweppe, H.1988. Practical information for the identification of dyes on historic textile materials. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Thompson, R. H.1971. Naturally occurring quinones. 3d ed.New York: Academic Press.
Trottman, E. R.1975. Dyeing and chemical technology of textile fibres. 5th ed.London: Griffin.
Walker, C., and H. L.Needles. 1986. Analysis of natural dyes on wool substrates using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In Historic textile and paper materials, ed.H. L.Needles and S. H.Zeronian. Advances in Chemistry series 212. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. 175–85.
West, T. S., and A. S.Sykes. 1958. Analytical applications of diamino-ethane-tetra-acetic acid. Poole, Eng.: British Drug House.
Wouters, J., 1985. High performance liquid chromatography of anthraquinones: Analysis of plant and insect extracts and dyed textiles. Studies in Conservation30:119–28.
Wouters, J., and N.Rosario-Chirinos. 1992. Dye analysis of pre-Columbian Peruvian textiles with high-performance liquid chromatography and diode-array detection. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation31:237–55.
Wouters, J., and A.Verhecken. 1985. High-performance liquid chromatography of anthraquinones: Analysis of plant and insect extracts and dyed textiles. Studies in Conservation30:119–28.
Wouters, J., and A.Verhecken. 1987. The chemical nature of flavokermesic acid. Tetrahedron Letters28:1199–202.
Wouters, J., and A.Verhecken. 1989a. The coccid insect dyes: HPLC and computerized diode-array analysis of dyed yarns. Studies in Conservation34:189–200.
Wouters, J., and A.Verhecken. 1989b. The scale insect dyes (Homoptera: Coccoidea): Species recognition by HPLC and diode-array analysis of the dyestuffs. Annales de la Societe Entomologique Française25:393–410.
Young, W. J.1957. Appendix III: Analysis of textile dyes. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology50:53–54.
ERICA J. TIEDEMANN holds an M.S. in textile science from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and is working on a Ph.D. at Ohio State University. Address: Department of Textiles and Clothing, 1787 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210.
YIQI YANG holds an M.S. in textile chemical engineering from China Textile University and a Ph.D. in textile science from Purdue University. He is a professor and senior research engineer in textile coloring and finishing at the Institute of Textile Technology. Address: Institute of Textile Technology, 2551 Ivy Road, Charlottesville, Va. 22903.