JAIC 1998, Volume 37, Number 1, Article 2 (pp. 03 to 22)
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 1998, Volume 37, Number 1, Article 2 (pp. 03 to 22)

A BRIEF HISTORY AND REVIEW OF THE EARLY PRACTICE AND MATERIALS OF GAP-FILLING IN THE WEST

JONATHAN THORNTON



NOTES

. Anecdotal experience of the author in working with various traditional craftspeople much older than himself indicates a relatively recent but unfavorable attitude to filling materials, with “half inch putty” being suggested for errors of that dimension and the traditional chiding ditty “If your miter doesn't fit, fill it up with glue and shit” driving the message home.

. During the 1960s and 1970s the author personally observed such menders at work riveting china and re-tinning and otherwise refurbishing copper cookware in India and Iran.



REFERENCES

AngeloBros. 1956. Shellac. Calcutta: Angelo Bros.

Barthelet, A.1884. The works of art and bric-a-brac doctor. Philadelphia: A. Barthelet.

Bessemer, H.1905. Sir Henry Bessemer F.R.S. London: Offices of Engineering.

Betzler, S.1996. Tragant zum modellieren und kleben. Restauro7:480–84.

BradyG. S., and H. R.Clauser. 1977. The materials handbook. 11th ed.New York: McGraw-Hill.

Brannt, W. T., ed.1886. The techno-chemical receipt book. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird & Co.

Brannt, W. T., ed. [1890] 1919. The metal worker's handy book. New York: Henry Carey Baird & Co.

Brannt, W. T.1900. India rubber, gutta-percha and balata. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird & Co.

Brewer, J., and R.Porter, eds.1993. Consumption and the world of goods. London: Routledge.

Buchanan, J.F.1910. Practical alloying. Cleveland, Ohio: Penton Publishing.

Campbell, A. J.1867. American practical cyclopedia. Cleveland, Ohio: A.J. Campbell.

Campbell, R. [1747] 1969. The London tradesman. London: Augustus M. Kelly.

Cassar, J.1988. Past stone restoration methods in the Maltese islands. In Early advances in conservation, ed.V.Daniels. British Museum Occasional Paper 65. London: British Museum. 103–10.

Crookes, W., trans. and ed.1892. Wagner's chemical technology. New York: D.Appleton and Co.

Daniels, V., ed.1988. Early advances in conservation. British Museum Occasional Paper 65. London: British Museum.

Derry, T. K., and T. I.Williams. 1960. A short history of technology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Dossie, R.1758. The handmaid to the arts. London: J. Nourse.

Dow, G. F.1927. The arts and crafts in New England, 1704–1775. Topsfield, Mass.: Wayside Press.

Eckel, E. C.1928. Cements, limes and plasters. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Fernbach, R. L.1921. Glues and gelatine. New York: D.Van Nostrand Co.

Fieser, F., and M.Fieser. 1956. Organic chemistry. Boston: D. C. Heath and Co.

Gottesman, R. S.1938. The arts and crafts in New York, 1726–1776. New York: New-York Historical Society.

Gottesman, R. S.1954. The arts and crafts in New York, 1777–1779. New York: New-York Historical Society.

Gottesman, R. S.1965. The arts and crafts in New York, 1880-1804. New York: New-York Historical Society.

Green, James, 1991. Henry Carey Baird and Company, America's first technical publishers. TACSCL News1(1).

Hanna, S., and N.Lee. 1988. The consequences of previous adhesives and consolidants used for stone conservation at the British Museum. In Early advances in conservation, ed.V.Daniels. British Museum Occasional Paper 65. London: British Museum. 89–96.

Hartley, D.1939. Made in England. London: Century.

Hasluck, P.N., ed.1904. Cassell's cyclopedia of mechanics. 8 vols. London: Cassell and Co.

Hawthorne, J. G., and C. S.Smith. 1963. On divers arts: The treatise of Theophilus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Heal, A. [1925] 1968. London tradesmen's cards of the XVIII century. New York: Dover.

Hopkins, A. A., ed.1906. The Scientific American cyclopedia of receipts, notes and queries. New York: Munn & Co.

Horie, C. V.1994. Materials for conservation: Organic consolidants, adhesives and coatings. London: Butterworths.

Katz, S.1984. Classic plastics. London: Thames and Hudson.

Kesner, L., J.Mrzek., Z.Grohmanov, and D.Pechov. 1993. Magister Theodoricus. Prague: National Gallery.

Knaggs, N. S.1947. Adventures in man's first plastic: The romance of natural waxes. New York: Rheinhold.

Langton, H. M.1925. Blacks and pitches. London: Ernest Benn.

Leighou, R. B.1925. The chemistry of engineering materials. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Leland, C. G.1896. A manual of mending and repairing. London: Chatto & Windus.

Marijnissen, R. H.1996. The need for a history of restoration. In Historical and philosophical issues in the conservation of cultural heritage, ed.N. S.Price, M. K.Talley, and A. M.Vaccaro. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute. 275–80.

Masschelein-Kleiner, L.1985. Ancient binding media, varnishes and adhesives. trans. and ed.J.Bridgland, S.Walston, and A. E.Werner. Rome: ICCROM.

McKendrick, N., J.Brewer, and J. H.Plumb. 1982. The birth of consumer society: The commercialization of 18th-century England. London: Europa.

McMurrayJ.1988. Organic chemistry. 2d ed.Pacific Grove, Calif.: Brooks Cole Publishing Co.

Mills, J. S., and R.White. 1994. The organic chemistry of museum objects. 2d ed.London: Butterworths.

Moore, R.1882. The universal assistant and complete mechanic. New York: R. Moore.

Ormsbee, T. H.1949. Care and repair of antiques. New York: Gramercy.

Parry, E. J. n.d. Gums and resins: Their occurrence, properties and uses (Pitman's common commodities and industries). London: Pitman and Sons.

Parsons, C. S. M., and F. H.Curl. 1963. China mending and restoration. London: Faber and Faber.

Picon, C. A.1983. Cavaceppi. London: Clarendon Gallery.

Pilkington, J.1881. The artist's guide and mechanic's own book. Boston: Chase, Nichols and Hill.

Prime, A. C. [1929] 1968. The arts and crafts in Philadelphia, Maryland and South Carolina part 1 1721–1785, and part 2 1786–1800. New York: Da Capo Press.

Richardson, R.1991. The history and technology of Presbrokat. In Gilding and surface decoration, ed.S.Budden. London: UKIC. 36–39.

Robson, M. 1988. Methods of restoration and conservation of Bronze Age pottery urns in the British Museum. In Early advances in conservation, ed.V.Daniels. British Museum Occasional Paper 65. London: British Museum. 141–46.

Savage, G.1954. The art and antique restorers handbook. London: Barrie and Rockliff.

Scott, A.1926. The cleaning and restoration of museum exhibits. London: His Majesty's Stationery Office.

Seaman, A. J.1899. The expert cleaner. New York: Funk and Wagnalls.

Sheraton, T. [1803] 1970. The cabinet dictionary. New York: Praeger.

Spon's mechanics own book. 1893. 4th ed.London: E. and F. N. Spon.

Spon's workshop receipts. 1932. London: E. and F.N.Spon.

The story of the metal tube. 1969. New York: Tube Council of America.

Taubes, F.1969. Restoring and preserving antiques. New York: Watson-Guptill.

Thompson, D. V., trans. and ed. [1933] 1960. The craftsman's handbook. New York: Dover.

Thornton, J.1991. Minding the gap: Filling losses in gilded and decorated objects. In Gilding and surface decoration, ed.S.Budden. London: UKIC. 12–17.

Thornton, J.1993. The history, technology and conservation of architectural papier mch. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation32:165–76.

Thornton,J., and W.Adair. 1994. Applied decoration for historic interiors: Preserving composition ornament. Preservation Brief 34. Washington D.C.: National Park Service.

Tice, P. M.1992. Altered states: Alcohol and other drugs in America. Rochester, N.Y.: Strong Museum.

Torraca, G.1981. Porous building materials. Rome: ICCROM.

Ure, A.1842. A dictionary of arts, manufactures and mines. New York: D.Appleton and Co.

Waterer, J. W.1973. A guide to the conservation and restoration of objects made wholly or in part of leather. London: IIC and G. Bell and Sons.

Williams, N.1988. Ancient methods of repairing pottery and porcelain. In Early advances in conservation, ed.V.Daniels. British Museum Occasional Paper 65. London: British Museum. 147–50.

Youman, A. E.1876. A dictionary of everyday wants containing twenty thousand receipts. New York: Frank M. Reed.


AUTHOR INFORMATION

JONATHAN THORNTON received his M.A. and Certificate of Advanced Study from the State University College at Oneonta, N.Y. (Cooperstown Graduate Program in Conservation), after an earlier career as an independent craftsman. He is currently professor at the Art Conservation Department of the State University College at Buffalo, where he has taught the conservation of objects since 1980. Address: Art Conservation Department, Buffalo State College, 1300 Elmwood Ave., Buffalo, N.Y. 14222.


Copyright 1998 American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works