JAIC 1998, Volume 37, Number 1, Article 3 (pp. 23 to 34)
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 1998, Volume 37, Number 1, Article 3 (pp. 23 to 34)

COMMERCIAL VINYL AND ACRYLIC FILL MATERIALS

MEG LOEW CRAFT, & JULIE A. SOLZ

ABSTRACT—Commercial vinyl and acrylic fillers offer a convenient alternative to traditional and conservator-prepared fillers. Composition, working properties, and advantages and disadvantages for conservation applications are reviewed and compared. As with all commercial products, the discussion of composition is limited by secret trade ingredients and changing formulations. The aim is to present information to aid in choosing fill materials used in conservation treatments, rather than recommending any specific commercial product or promoting their use over other available materials.

TITRE—Matériaux de retauration commerciaux de vinyle et d'acrilique. RÉSUMÉ—Les matériaux de charge de vynile et d'acrilique vendus dans le commerce offrent une alternative commode aux matériaux de charge traditionnels ou à ceux préparés par le restaurateur. La composition, les propriétés actives, ainsi que les avantages et inconvénients de leur emploi dans la restauration sont passés en revue et comparés. Comme il arrive souvent dans l'étude des produits commerciaux, la discussion sur la composition est limitée par les secrets de fabrication et les changements de formule. Le but du présent article n'est pas de recommander un produit commercial particulier ou d'encourager son usage par rapport à d'autres matériaux disponibles mais plutôt d'offrir des informations qui aideront à choisir les matériaux de charge pour les traitements de restauration.

TITULO—Materiales comerciales vinílicos y acrílicos para reposición de faltantes. RESUMEN—Los rellenos comerciales vinílicos y acrílicos ofrecen una alternativa conveniente a los tradicionales, y a los preparados por los conservadores. En este trabajo se revisan y comparan, composición, propiedades, ventajas y desventajas para su aplicación en conservación. Como con todos los productos comerciales, la discusión sobre la composición esta limitada por los secretos de oficio sobre los ingredientes y a los cambios en las fórmulas. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar la información y colaborar en la elección de los materiales de reposición que se utilizan en tratamientos de conservación, más que recomendar cualquier producto comercial específico o promover su uso sobre otros materiales disposibles.


1 INTRODUCTION

Conservators have adopted commercially available products into their repertoire of treatment materials for filling nonstructural small losses in selected objects made of ceramics, wood, and mixed media; sculpture; and paintings. This category of fill material has not received the same scrutiny and testing that traditional fillers, varnishes, paints, and adhesives have. The following information has been gathered primarily from the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) listed in Further Reading, the manufacturers' technical representatives, and, when available, conservation literature. Review of the information is intended to aid the conservator in selecting a fill material.

The general advantages and disadvantages of commercial vinyl and acrylic fillers versus traditional fillers are compared. Discussions of acrylic modeling pastes and vinyl-based fillers are accompanied by working characteristics of specific products. A chart has been compiled listing composition, pH, odor, and specific gravity from the MSDS and working properties such as gloss, color, texture, and the ability to sand, solvent finish, or burnish, gathered from the authors' practical experience and manufacturers' directions. Myriad products are available through the construction and the arts and crafts industries; no attempt is made to be exhaustive. The products were selected by availability from conservation supply companies, by references in recent books on repair of ceramics, and by familiarity to the authors.

Commercial vinyl and acrylic fill materials offer greater convenience and flexibility in application than traditional gap-filling materials, including plaster, gesso, and oil-based putties. These ready-mixed fillers consist of vehicles or binders, bulking agents, and additional agents, such as thickeners, foaming agents, emulsifiers, pigments, and biocides. The vinyl-based products, which are intended for patching or spackling plaster or wallboard, have been adopted from the construction industry, while the acrylic products were developed for artist and craft uses. None of the commercial products commonly used in treatments was developed specifically for conservation usage, with the exception of the new BEVA Gessoes, which were introduced in January 1997. Full disclosure of contents and consistency in composition over time cannot be assured. Many of the ingredients are trade secrets, and formulations change repeatedly without notice.


2 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING COMMERCIAL FILLERS

Working characteristics of commercial fillers offer some advantages over those of plaster and conservator-prepared fillers. Most obviously, the fillers are conveniently premixed and ready for use. The time-saving feature of ready-mixed products must be balanced with the ability to adjust the formulation for each object when making one's own fillers.

Timing is not critical when using ready-mixed fillers for gap filling since drying occurs slowly by evaporation rather than by the rapid chemical setting reaction of plaster. No heat is generated during the drying of commercial fillers. Multiple or adjacent applications of commercial fillers create a uniform surface, while with plaster it is difficult to control hardness and uniformity in more than one pour.

Vehicles or binders in the fillers increase adhesion to the artifact being treated. Plaster remains in place primarily by physical fit or interlock. Adhesion to the substrate may or may not be desirable depending on the specific treatment project. Filling of small cracks or chips in low-fire ceramics is made easier by the adhesive qualities of the commercial fillers. The vinyl and acrylic fillers generally do not adhere well to nonporous surfaces including porcelain, glass, and metal. An exception is BEVA Gesso, which sticks well to metal surfaces.

Due to the inclusion of the vehicle or binder, the vinyl and acrylic fillers are generally softer than plaster, making finishing and carving easier. The fillers are also resoluble in water or organic solvents such as acetone, depending on the product used, adding another method of shaping or finishing beyond abrasion and carving.

The major disadvantage is shrinkage caused by evaporation of water or solvents. Shrinkage ranges from a few percent up to 50%. On the other hand, plaster expands slightly (up to 0.5%), depending on the grade of plaster selected. Shrinkage prohibits the vinyl and acrylic fillers from being used to fill large losses without added structural support. Multiple applications are recommended to produce a uniform surface and to avoid shrinkage in deep losses. Applying large quantities in a single pass results in major cracks and unevenness. Casting into closed molds is not practical since drying is retarded or prevented. Therefore, the commercial fillers are relegated to filling small losses or to surfacing other structural fillers, such as bulked epoxies, polyesters, AJK or BJK dough strips, or plaster.

The commercial fillers are all opaque and range in color from pale cream to cold bluish white to light brown. Pigmented acrylic emulsion gessoes are also available. None of the fillers examined are suitable for use on transparent or translucent objects. If used on ceramics with a transparent glaze, the commercial fillers must be slightly recessed in the loss to permit application of overlying transparent varnishes or coatings.

As is true with plaster or conservator-prepared fillers, commercial fillers can cause ghosting on porous materials, especially low-fire ceramics and wood. Ghosting appears as a white haze surrounding a fill and is usually very difficult to remove. Ghosting results from the entrapment of the particulates or bulking agents (such as calcium carbonate or kaolin) in the pores, cracks, or recesses on the object surface. To prevent ghosting, coating the edges of the loss and adjacent surface to isolate the object is recommended. Plaster can introduce sulfate salts to porous bodies, but this concern is not as great with commercial fillers. Moisture will be absorbed by porous object materials unless a barrier is introduced. Dilute Paraloid B-72 in acetone is one effective barrier.


3 ACRYLIC MODELING PASTES: GENERAL DISCUSSION

The vehicles for modeling pastes are acrylic polymer emulsions. The exact identification of the emulsions or dispersions in commercial fillers is generally a trade secret and is only generically listed by the manufacturers. The polymers are often combinations of methyl, ethyl, butyl acrylates, and methacrylates. The bulking agents are frequently forms of calcium carbonate, but calcium sulfate, barium sulfate, talc (French chalk), kaolin, and other clays may be present. Additional ingredients may be ammonia or ammoniated compounds, ethylene glycols, pigments, and emulsifying or foaming agents. The ammonia or ammoniated compounds present in most acrylic fillers may serve a role as biocides. The ammonia or ammoniated compounds, which may cause corrosion on some metals, are present in extremely small quantities. No problems of corrosion related to the fillers have been located in conservation publications.

A few commonly used modeling pastes available in the United States are: Liquitex Modeling Paste, Golden Molding Pastes, and Utrecht Modeling Paste. Introduced in 1958, Liquitex Modeling Paste probably finds the most widespread use in objects conservation in the United States. Modeling pastes have been extensively used for gap filling on ceramics, especially low-fire earthenware, plaster sculpture or gesso, and, to a lesser extent, on wood and metal artifacts. Flexibility of the dried films varies considerably. The lesser flexibility of some, especially Liquitex Modeling Paste, limits potential use on checks or cracks in wood or on hygroscopic materials, such as ivory. Modeling pastes are intended for indoor applications only.

The pastes are available in many grades, labeled light, heavy, or hard. The manufacturers' instructions recommend building forms or creating textures with the modeling pastes. Only Liquitex Modeling Paste is recommend as carvable. Golden Light Molding Paste is intended to help build depth without adding weight. Many of the modeling or molding pastes form very flexible and soft films which may not be suitable for gap filling on rigid materials, objects that will be handled or displayed in the open.

The pastes are suitable for application with spatulas. Multiple thin applications are preferred to avoid shrinkage or evaporation cracks. Evaporation cracks are formed by the varying rate of escaping water from the thick and thin areas of the fill. The cracks can be avoided by applying thin layers and slow drying. The cracks can be filled with no effect on the final strength and bond of the filler (Wall 1997). The modeling pastes can be thinned with water to be made brushable or modified with compatible media supplied by the manufacturers. Extenders, retarders, gels, and acrylic paints are available. Tools can be cleaned with water before drying. Once opened, the container should be tightly closed to prevent drying out. The manufacturers recommend working above 50° F. The products must be kept at temperatures above freezing during shipment and storage.

When dry, the acrylic fills can be sanded or rubbed down with solvent. Acetone (ketone) or toluene (aromatic hydrocarbon) are suitable solvents for removing excess filler or smoothing the surface. Liquitex Modeling Paste is the most easily sanded of the acrylic products mentioned. The others feel more plastic, elastic, or “rubbery,” tend to grab abrasives, and peel up. The fillers are thermoplastic and can be slightly modified using heat. Acrylic emulsion paints, resin-based paints, watercolor, and gouache are suitable for inpainting.

There are limited conservation references regarding acrylic fillers. Reports of testing (Barov and Lambert 1984) indicate that the thermal expansion of Liquitex Modeling Paste, and by inference the other acrylic fillers, makes it compatible with ceramic objects under extreme thermal fluctuations possibly experienced during transport. No major problems of incompatibility, rapid deterioration, decrease in reversibility over time, or other conservation problems regarding acrylic fillers are noted in the literature. Recently, however, turbidity and the formation of crystals of poly(ethylene glycol) compounds in Liquitex acrylic emulsion paint films have been documented (Whitmore et al. 1996), but no extension of the phenomena or problem has been made yet in regard to the modeling paste.


3.1 ACRYLIC COMMERCIAL FILLERS: PRODUCT-SPECIFIC INFORMATION

Liquitex Modeling Paste—Shrinkage of Liquitex Modeling Paste is about 20% upon drying. Of the acrylic modeling pastes examined, Liquitex Modeling Paste is the hardest, least plastic, and most easily worked when dry. 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP, isobutanolamine), which is used in industry as an emulsifying agent, is listed as a hazardous component, but no Threshold Limit Value (TLV) has been set. The quantity present is extremely small trace amounts. No corrosion on metal due to its presence is reported in the literature or by the manufacturer's representative. Bonding to smooth surfaces may be problematic (Wall 1997).

Golden Molding Pastes—Golden produces a series of molding pastes: Extra Heavy/Molding Paste 03110, Molding Paste 13570, Hard Molding Paste 03571, and Light Molding Paste 03575. As far as can be determined, the ingredients are similar. All are softer, more plastic, and more flexible than Liquitex Modeling Paste. None are easily sanded. Golden Hard Molding Paste comes the closest to Liquitex in terms of handling and the final surface. The Light Molding Paste does not shrink as much as the others. When the dried film is held up to light, numerous small air bubbles are visible, suggesting the use of foaming agents. Attempts to finish the surface of the Light Molding Paste expose air bubbles resulting in a rough and uneven surface.

Utrecht Modeling Paste—The MSDS for Utrecht Modeling Paste provides little information, claiming no hazardous materials. The pH of the undried paste is approximately 9. The solid material is partially soluble and effervesces in dilute mineral acid, indicating some carbonate-containing bulking agent. The color is a cold opaque white, suggesting that a pigment has been added, probably titanium dioxide. The dried film or fill is soft, rubbery, and picks up dirt easily. Carving and abrasion are difficult and not successful. Comparing the weights of an equal volume of Utrecht to Liquitex Modeling Paste, the Utrecht is much lighter, suggesting that less bulking agent may be present in the formulation.

Liquitex Acrylic Gesso—The Liquitex Acrylic Gesso has lower viscosity and will not hold peaks or forms without additional support or additives. The shrinkage rate is approximately 40%. It is highly recommended that thin layers be applied to avoid formation of cracks. The evaporation cracks do not weaken the bond or strength of the final fill. For an equal volume, its drying time is one of the longest of all the commercial products discussed. The dried fills can be sanded.

TABLE 1. PRODUCT SPECIFIC INFORMATION FOR COMMERCIAL ACRYLIC FILLERS

Golden Acrylic Gesso—The Golden Acrylic Gesso is also a lower viscosity liquid that is not self-supporting. The dried fills can be sanded.

Liquitex Acrylic Colored Gessoes—The Liquitex Acrylic Colored Gessoes were introduced in 1990. The colored gessoes offer a rich, matte surface. The factory-prepared gesso cannot be duplicated by mixing of other available media, pigments, or agents. The gesso has low viscosity and will not hold peaks or forms without additional support. The shrinkage rate is 50% (Wall 1997). For an equal volume, the drying time was the longest of all the commercial products tested. The specific gravity is approximately the same as the white-colored gesso. The black pigment has a very small and uniform particle size. The fill is rubbery and difficult to finish by sanding. A smooth surface can be obtained by wiping with acetone or ethanol. Ghosting is hard to avoid, even with isolating barriers.

Golden Acrylic Black Gesso—The Golden Acrylic Black Gesso has low viscosity, but not as low as Liquitex Black Gesso. It still will not hold sharp peaks or forms without additional support or additives. The filler dries faster than Liquitex Black Gesso. The fill is also rubbery and difficult to finish by sanding. A smooth surface can be obtained by wiping with acetone. Ghosting tends to be a problem, as the pigment size is very fine.


4 VINYL-BASED COMMERCIAL FILLERS: GENERAL DISCUSSION

Many vinyl-based fillers are available in the building supply and hardware markets. Three commonly mentioned for use in objects conservation include DAP Vinyl Spackling, Polyfix, and Polyfilla Fine Surface (from England). Another, Perma-fill Ready Mixed Spackle, was unavailable at the time of writing. In January 1997, CPC began to offer BEVA Gesso-P and BEVA Gesso-V as part of its product line. BEVA Gessoes are the first fillers designed specifically for conservation use. These gessoes, which vary from the other vinyl commercial fillers, are based on resins rather than emulsions or dispersions.

The vinyl emulsion fillers contain a polyvinylacetate dispersion or emulsion as the vehicle or binder. The bulking agent is usually calcium carbonate in the form of marble flour or ground limestone. Other ingredients may include biocides and thickeners. Pigments are not added to the vinyl-based fillers as frequently as in acrylic modeling pastes.

The vinyl emulsion fillers can be applied with a spatula as supplied. A drop of water can be added to make the mix softer or creamier. They cannot be easily or successfully thinned with water enough to be brushed on. The addition of adequate water to permit brush application results in a very weak and powdery layer. Tools and surfaces can be cleaned with water. Unlike acrylic-based fillers, vinyl emulsion fillers remain readily water-soluble after drying. The products contain sufficient filler or bulking agents relative to the quantity of vehicle to make sanding or abrasion easy. The resultant films or fills are less flexible and elastic than the modeling pastes. The appearance of the fills is matte but gentle burnishing can slightly increase the gloss and density of the surface.

The BEVA Gessoes are the first commercial vinyl resin fillers designed solely for conservation use. The products have not been available long enough for an adequate evaluation for use on objects, but they appear to have great potential. The setting occurs by evaporation of organic solvents from the bulked resin mixture rather than water from emulsions or dispersions. While the use of resins makes the products toxic to handle when wet, it also makes them indefinitely resoluble and reworkable. The vehicle or binder is based on hydrogenated hydrocarbon resins and ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer (EVA). Adhesive tests have shown that BEVA 371, a comparable vinyl adhesive to those used in BEVA Gesso, is stable (Down et al. 1996). The gesso shares solubility characteristics with BEVA 371; it is soluble in petroleum distillates, ketones, and aromatic hydrocarbons but insoluble in water.


4.1 VINYL COMMERCIAL FILLERS: PRODUCT-SPECIFIC INFORMATION

DAP Vinyl Spackling Compound—DAP Vinyl Spackling Compound has been available for about 20 years. However, during that time the formulation has changed many times, according to a technical representative from DAP, Inc. Volatiles by volume equal about 24%. The dried product is not plastic or flexible, but hard and brittle relative to most of the acrylic modeling pastes.

DAP Fast N' Final—DAP Fast N' Final is a relatively new product. Volatiles by volume equal about 25–30%. The dried fill is lightweight; air bubbles are present beneath the skin. The dried fill is lighter than and floats in water. Finishing the surfaces exposes the voids, making a very smooth surface difficult to achieve. The filler is incompatible with strong oxidizers and caustics.

Polyfix—The MSDS reveals very little information. Practically, the dried fill is much coarser in texture and whiter than Polyfilla. The Polyfix is more comparable to DAP Spackling Compound but is still slightly coarser in texture. It is easily wet or dry sanded to yield a level surface.

Polyfilla Fine Surface, tub—Polyfilla Fine Surface in a tub, manufactured by the Polycell Corporation, has been reported on more than any of the other fillers. The information is still very generic, exemplifying the need for scientific analysis of the commercial products. Caley (1993) lists the basic formulation and the following explanation:

A complete formula was not divulged, but the basis of the material can be summarized:

Fine powder fillers including: ground limestone, ground marble.

Binder: acrylic VeoVa-PVA copolymer, internally plasticized

Additives: cellulose thickeners, boracide preservative, higher alcohols, glycol ethers, amine to raise pH

The “mystery ingredient,” assumed by some to be oil, is VeoVa 10, a product of Shell Resins, described by the company as the vinyl ester of Versatic 10, a synthetic saturated monocarboxylic acid mixture of highly branched C10 isomers, its structure is represented as:

R1, R2, and R3 are alkyl groups (of general formula Cn H2n+1 {univalent}) of which one or more is methyl… . Amongst its notable properties are excellent adhesion and wetting, affording the necessary high CPCV (critical pigment/volume concentration).

A recipe for a similar conservator-prepared fine surface filler and further references for VeoVa are also included in Caley's article, which is not readily available in the United States. Qualitatively, Polyfilla Fine Surface in a tub has the smoothest dried surface and finest particle size of the vinyl fillers. The matte surface is a creamier color than the other vinyl spackles, not including the BEVA Gessoes. Polyfilla Fine Surface is not sold in the United States. There is confusion regarding the name. British manufactured Polyfilla is supplied in two different forms: in a tub and in a tube. A completely different plaster and cellulose fiber filler, which is purchased as a dry powder, is distributed also under the name Polyfilla and is manufactured in Canada and supplied by Conservator's Emporium, Reno, Nevada.

Polyfilla Fine Surface, tube—The only ingredients listed on the MSDS are biocides, which are toxic, corrosive, and harmful to the environment. Other ingredients are not listed. The filler, which is supplied in a tube, is more plastic than the tub version.

BEVA Gesso-P, fine-grained and BEVA Gesso-V, medium-grained—Fine-grained BEVA Gesso-P is grayish when applied but dries white in color. BEVA Gesso-V is coarse, sandy in texture, and beige to brown in color when dry. The gessoes adhere well to most surfaces, better than any of the other products. The bulking agent is identified as a chemically inert compressible mineral powder, a crystalline material having high porosity, large volume, and low density. Both BEVA Gesso-V and BEVA Gesso-P effervesce in dilute mineral acid and seem to contain a carbonate compound, which is not listed as a specific ingredient in the manufacturers' literature. The BEVA Gesso-V contains a reflective particle that appears to be micalike.

Drying occurs more rapidly than with the fillers containing water. The odor of toluene and/or xylenes is strong when working with the wet fillers. Protection from solvent vapors during working is absolutely necessary. Although volatiles are lost and some cracking and distortion of the filler occur during drying, the actual change in volume or shrinkage is small due to the high percentage of bulking agent to vehicle.

The final surfaces are initially matte but can be burnished to a very high gloss. The thermoplastic gesso is easily shaped using heat (65–70°C = 149–158°F). Impasto can be mimicked by shaping with a hot needle microtool (Tomkiewicz 1997). Patterns and textures are readily impressed using heat, pressure, or molds. The impressions are fully retained, and the gesso seems to have little plastic memory. The fills can be finished by sanding, carving, or solvent smoothing.

Fills should be isolated with an alcohol-based coating prior to inpainting, if using a solvent-based system. Inpainting can be executed in acrylic emulsions, synthetic resins including polyvinyl acetates and Paraloids, and natural resins, such as dammar or shellac. Watercolor and gouache are not recommended (Chludzinski 1997; Conservator's Products Company 1997a; Tomkiewicz 1997).

The manufacturer's instructions for use advise kneading plaster of paris into the gesso to create a “claylike” mass for filling. After the addition of just a small amount of plaster, the gesso began to crumble when worked. A drop of BEVA 371 needed to be added to improve cohesiveness.


5 CONCLUSIONS

While commercial fillers have been used successfully in gap filling in the treatment of a variety of different media, little scientific analysis has been published to assist the conservator in making informed choices. Information is incomplete and generic. Additional testing and analysis are needed, especially to reveal their composition.

Commercial fillers broaden treatment options for gap filling. Incomplete knowledge of the contents and the possibility of changing formulations present the greatest disadvantages in recommending their use. Several of the products, especially DAP Spackling Compound, Liquitex Modeling Paste, and Polyfilla, have been used for many years in ceramic and sculpture treatment without reports of any resultant conservation problems. The newer products require additional testing and observation to determine safety and effectiveness in specific treatment situations.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Many thanks to Ellen Pearlstein, Brooklyn Museum, and Donna Strahan, Walters Art Gallery, for their encouragment; to Carolyn Tomkiewicz, Brooklyn Museum, and Sarah Fisher, National Gallery of Art, for providing information; and to Alexis Miller and Lauren Smith, conservation students at the University of Delaware/Winterthur Museum Art Conservation Program for helping collect information.



REFERENCES

Barov, Z., and F.Lambert. 1984. Mechanical properties of some fill materials for ceramic conservation. ICOM preprints, 7th Triennial Meeting, Copenhagen. Rome: ICOM. 84.20.1–84.20.4.

Caley, T.1993. A note on Polyfilla. Picture Restorer4:4.

Chludzinski, G.1997. Personal communication. Conservator's Products Co., P.O. Box 411, Chatham, N.J. 07928.

Conservator's Products Company. 1997a. BEVA Gesso—Description and instructions for use.

Down, J., M. A.MacDonald, J.Tetreault, and R. S.Williams. 1996. Adhesives testing at the Canadian Conservation Institute: An evaluation of selected poly vinylacetate and acrylic adhesives. Studies in Conservation41:19–44.

Tomkiewicz, C.1997. Personal communication. Paintings conservator, Brooklyn Museum, 200 Eastern Pkwy., Brooklyn, N.Y. 11238.

Wall, B.1997. Personal communication. Technical representative, Liquitex products, Binney and Smith, Inc. 1-800-CRAYOLA.

Whitmore, P. M., V. G.Colaluca, and E.Farrell. 1996. A note on the origin of turbidity in films of an artists' acrylic paint medium. Studies in Conservation41:250–55.



FURTHER READING

Binney and Smith, Inc.1997. Material safety data sheets.

Binney and Smith, Inc. 1992. The acrylic book—Liquitex—The handbook of fine art techniques and applications for acrylic paints, mediums, and varnishes. Brochure. Easton, Pa.: Binney and Smith.

Buys, S., and V.Oakley. 1993. The conservation and restoration of ceramics. Oxford, England: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Conservator's Products Company. 1997b. Material safety data sheet BEVA Gesso.

DAP, Inc.1992. Material safety data sheet 10410. October 13, 1992.

Elston, M.1990. Technical and aesthetic considerations in the conservation of ancient ceramic and terracotta objects in the J. Paul Getty Museum: Five case studies. Studies in Conservation35:6979.

Golden Artist Colors, Inc.1997. Material safety data sheets (G1A). June 5, 1996.

Golden Artist Colors, Inc.1997. Material safety data sheets (G1B). August 1, 1996.

Koob, S. P.1987. Detachable plaster restoration for archaeological ceramics. Recent Advances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts, ed.V.Todd. Jubilee Conservation Conference, London. London: United Kingdom Institute of Conservation. 63–66.

Koob, S. P.1986. The use of Paraloid B-72 as an adhesive: Its applications for archaeological ceramics and other materials. Studies in Conservation31:7–14.

Lepage's Ltd.1997. Material safety data sheet. Polyfix. February 28, 1986.

Polycell Products Ltd.1997. Material safety data sheet TDS 0023/23A. August 1994.

Polycell Products Ltd.1997. Material safety data sheet POLYCELL0023. October 10, 1996.

Polycell Products Ltd.1997. Material safety data sheet POLYCELL0023A. October 22, 1996.

Utrecht Manufacturing Co.1997. Material safety data sheet New Temp Acrylic Colors. November 8, 1995.



SOURCES OF MATERIALS

Liquitex Acrylic Modeling Paste

Liquitex Acrylic Coated Gesso, Binney and Smith, Inc., 1100 Church Ln., Easton, Pa. 18044-0431, (800) 272-9652, Available at art supply stores

Perma-fill Ready Mixed Spackling Paste

Bondfast Co., Bridgewater, N.J. 08807, Unavailable in April 1997, Distributed by Conservation Support Systems

BEVA Gesso-P, BEVA Gesso-V

Conservator's Products Co., P.O. Box 411, Chatham, N.J. 07928, (201) 927-4855

Fast n' Final Spackling, Interior Spackling Compound, DAP Vinyl Spackling

DAP, Inc., P.O. Box 277, Dayton, Ohio 45401-0277, (888) DAP-TIPS, Also available at hardware stores

Lascaux Modeling Paste A, Lascaux Modeling Paste B

Diethelm Lascaux Farbenfabrik, CH-8306 Bruttisellen, Zurichstrasse 42, Switerzland, (041) 1-933-07-86, Also available through New York Central Art Supply

Molding Paste, Golden, Light, Hard, Extra Heavy and Acrylic Colored Gesso

Golden Artist Colors, Inc., Bell Rd., New Berlin, N.Y. 13411, (800) 959-6543, Also available at art supply stores

Polyfix

Lepage's Ltd., 50 West Dr., Bramalea, Ont. L67 2J4, Canada

Pollyfilla Fine Surface (in tube and tub)

Polycell Products Ltd., Broadwater Rd., Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, AL7 3AZ, U.K., (017) 07-328-131, Also available in hardware stores in England

Acrylic Modeling Paste

Utrecht Manufacturing Corp., 33–35th St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 11232-2207, (718) 768-2525, Also available at art supply stores


AUTHOR INFORMATION

MEG LOEW CRAFT graduated from the University of Delaware/Winterthur Museum Conservation Program in 1977 with a specialization in objects conservation. After working at the Walters Art Gallery and Winterthur Museum, she set up a private practice in 1983 in Baltimore with Sian Jones, paintings conservator. Address: Art Conservation & Technical Services (A.C.T.S.), 410 Lyman Ave., Baltimore, Md. 21212.

JULIE A. SOLZ completed her undergraduate work at the University of New Hampshire in 1987. She has worked in museums for 10 years as a curatorial assistant and registrar. She joined A.C.T.S. in 1995 as an assistant object conservator, and in August 1997 she began attending the Winterthur Museum/University of Delaware Art Conservation Program. Address: 1401 N. Clayton St., Apt. B-6, Wilmington, Del.19806.

Section Index

Copyright © 1998 American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works