LOSS COMPENSATION METHODS FOR STONE
JOHN GRISWOLD, & SARI URICHECK
1. “Plastic” defines a physical property of the fill material and not the class of materials. Plastic repairs can be made from a completely inorganic, nonpolymer material. By definition (in engineering terms) if a substance retains deformation caused by an applied pressure, it is a plastic material. The opposite of a plastic material is an elastic material, which resumes its shape after the applied pressure is removed.
2. “Dutchmen” is a slang term first used by English stonemasons. It was originally a derogatory way of describing the replacement of a damaged part of a stone with a small insert for the damaged area, considered the lazy alternative to replacing the entire element. It is now a commonly recognized term.
3. The term “putty” is formally defined as a lime putty (a fine mortar of slaked lime and water) but has been adapted to describe any finely divided mixture.
Andersson, T.1986. Preservation of rock carvings and rune-stones. In Case studies in the conservation of stone and wall paintings. ed.N. S.Brommelle and P.Smith. London: IIC. 133–37.
Ashurst, J.1979. Gypsum plasters. Directorate of ancient monuments technical note 4. London: Directorate of the Environment.
Ashurst, J., and F.Dimes. 1990. Conservation of building and decorative stone, vol. 1. London: Butterworths-Heinemann.
ASTM. 1980. Chemical resistant materials; vitrified clay, concrete, asbestos, cement products, mortars and masonry. In Annual book of ASTM standards, vol. 16.C6. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials.
Barenne-Jones, J.1989. Personal communication. Present address unknown.
Barov, Z., and F.Lambert. 1984. Mechanical properties of some fill materials for ceramic conservation. In International Council of Museums Committee for Conservation preprints, 7th Triennial meeting, Copenhagen. Paris: ICOM. 84.20.1-84.20.1–4.
Berrett, K.1996. Personal communication. Oxford, Pa. 19363.
Blackshaw, S., and H.Cheetham. 1982. Foaming epoxy resin: A useful mounting medium for conservation. Studies in Conservation27:70–74.
Bongirno, B.1977. The preservation of the San Francisco mint: Cleaning, structure repair and stone replacement techniques. Technology and Conservation2(3):22–25.
Brady, G. S.1991. Materials handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Burke, J.1996. Personal communication. Oakland Museum, Oakland, Calif. 94605.
Byrne, G.1996. Personal communication. National Park Service, Harpers Ferry Center, Harpers Ferry, W.V. 25425.
Cassar, J.1988. Past stone restoration methods in the Maltese Islands. In Early advances in conservation, ed.V.Daniels. British Museum Occasional Paper 65. London: British Museum. 103–15.
Champe, P.1996. Personal communication. Central Park Conservancy, New York, N.Y. 10021.
Colton, S.1996. Personal communication. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, Calif. 90036.
Cornwall, I.1965. Bones for the archaeologist. London: Phoenix House. 204–17.
Craft, M. L.1996. Personal communication. Art Conservation Technical Services, Baltimore, Md. 21212.
de laRie, E. R.1988. Polymer stabilizers: A survey with reference to possible applications in the conservation field. Studies in Conservation33:9–22.
deMasy, M. Carbonell. 1992. Nouveau materiaux pour la restauration des pierres alterees. In Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, vol. 3. Lisbon: Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil. 1127–135.
Demitry, L.1988. The conservation of the Stadium of Domizian in Rome. In Sixth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Torun, Poland. Torun, Poland: Nicholas Copernicus University Press. 748–56.
Domaslowski, W.1990. Technologia zapraw epoksydowych wlasacych w niskich temperaturach I w atmosferze o wysokiej. (Technology of epoxy mortars at low temperature and high RH.) Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici15(189):33–63.
Domaslowski, W. and A.Strzelczyk. 1993. Thermoplastic polymers as binders of artificial stone. In Workshop on conservation of architectural surfaces: Stones and wall covering, Venice. Venice: Il Cardo.
Down, J.1986. The yellowing of epoxy resin adhesives: Report on high-intensity light aging. Studies in Conservation31:159–70.
Fidler, J.1982. Glass reinforced plastic facsimiles in building restoration. Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology14(3):21–25.
Fitchie, T.1978. Roman stone and other decorative artificial stones. Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology10(1):20–34.
Fowler, C.1850. Some remarks on terra cotta and artificial stone as connected with architecture. London.
Gänsicke, S., and J.Hirx. 1997. A translucent wax-resin fill material for the compensation of losses in objects. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation36:17–29.
Garland, K., and J.Rogers. 1995. The disassembly and reassembly of an Egyptian limestone sculpture. Studies in Conservation40:1–9.
Griswold, J.1990a. Conservation of three large-scale outdoor stone objects at Hearst Castle. Paper presented at Western Art Association for Conservation Annual Meeting, Catalina Island, Calif.
Griswold, J.1990b. Marble sculpture conservation technique. Western Art Association for Conservation Newsletter12(5):10.
Griswold, J.1994. Outdoor inpainting media for porous inorganic substrates. Master's thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario.
Hatchfield, P., and M.Marincola. 1994. Compensating losses: Tissue paper fills for sculpture. In Loss compensation: Technical and philosophical issues, Objects Specialty Group Postprints, vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: AIC. 57–71.
Hempel, K., and A.Moncrieff. 1977. Conservation of sculptural stonework: Virgin and child on S. Maria del Miracoli and the Loggetta of the Campanile, Venice. Studies in Conservation22:1–11.
Higuchi, S., and I.Setsuo. 1984. New material for the restoration of excavated pottery. Science for Conservation23:19–32.
Holmstrom, I.1982. Mortars, cements, and grouts for conservation and repair: Some urgent needs for research. In Mortars, cements and grouts used in the conservation of historic buildings. Rome: ICCROM. 19–24.
Kelly, A.1978. Mrs. Coade's stone. Connoisseur (January):14–25.
Kibby, C.1996. Personal communication. Preservation Arts. Oakland, Calif.
Koob, S.1987. Detachable plaster restorations for archaeological ceramics. In Recent advances in the conservation and analysis of artifacts. London: Summer School Press. 63–66.
Kotlik, P.1983. Mosnosti vzuziti epoxydovych pryskyric pri konservavovani a restaurovani kamennych objektu (The possibility of epoxy resin utilization in conservation and restoration of stone objects). Scientific papers of the Prague Institute of Chemical TechnologyS10: 145–63.
Kralova, M., M.Pavel, and J.Sramek. 1986. Conservation of Romanesque reliefs in Trebic. Pramatky a Piroda11(4):193–99, 224.
Larson, J. H.1978. The conservation of marble and monuments in churches. Conservator2:22–23.
Lowinger, R., and D.Williams. 1994. Loss compensation in contemporary sculpture. In Loss compensation: Technical and philosophical issues, Objects Specialty Group Postprints, vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: AIC. 103–14.
Ma, J.1995. The Leshan Grand Buddha: Investigations of traditional and alternative materials for repairs. In Methods of evaluating products for the conservation of porous building materials in monuments. Preprints, International Colloquium, Rome. Rome: ICCROM. 29–39.
Maltby, S.1996. Personal communication. Toronto, Ontario. Canada.
Matero, F., and A.Tagle. 1995. Cleaning, iron stain removal, and surface repair of architectural marble and crystalline limestone: The Metropolitan Club. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation34:49–68.
Moll, W. F., and T. J.Schirripa. 1980. Improved rheological and physical properties of adhesives imparted by fumed silica. In Adhesive and Sealant Council proceedings: Raw materials for the 80s. Adhesive and Sealant Council. 240–52.
Morgan, M.1960. Vitruvius' The ten books of architecture. New York: Dover. 205.
Murphy, J. P., and K.Ottavino. 1986. The rehabilitation of Bethesda Terrace Fountain. Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology18(3):25–33.
Nardi, R.1986. Conservation of the Arch of Septimus Severus: Work in progress. In Case studies in the conservation of stone and wall paintings, ed.N. S.Brommelle and P.Smith. London: IIC. 3–7.
Nelson, L. H.1992. White House stone carving: Builders and restorers. Washington D.C.: Department of the Interior, National Park Service.
Papanikolaou, A.1994. The restoration of the Erechtheion. In Acropolis restoration. Athens: Academy Editions. 136–49.
Penelis, G., J.Papayianni, and M.Karaveziroglou. 1989. Pozzolanic mortars for repair of masonry structures. In Structural repair and maintenance of historical buildings, ed.C. A.Brebbia. Boston: Computational Mechanics Publications. 161–69.
Penkala, B., and H.Zasun. 1988. Lime mortars in ancient Roman buildings of Alexandria. In Sixth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Torun, Poland. Torun, Poland: Nicholas Copernicus University Press. 375–80.
Peroni, S., C.Tersigni, and G.Torraca. 1981. Lime based mortars for the repair of ancient masonry and possible substitutes. In Mortars, cements and grouts used in the conservation of historic buildings. Rome: ICCROM. 63–101.
Phillips, M.1982. A stone porch replicated in wooden blocks. Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology14(3):12–15.
Plenderleith, H. J., and A.Werner. 1988. The conservation of antiquities and works of art. London: Oxford University Press. 324–26.
Pocobene, G.1994. A study of acrylic gessoes. Master's thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario.
Podany, J.1987. Advances in the reassembly of large stone sculpture at the J. Paul Getty Museum. In Recent advances in the conservation and analysis of artifacts. London: Summer School Press. 375–82.
Rawson, J.1994. Fiber-reinforced plastic components. Architect's Journal200(13):43–45.
Sass, S.1996. Personal communication. Conservation Center, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, New York, N.Y. 10021.
Scheifler Marks, L.1994. East and West: Approaches to loss compensation. In Loss compensation: Technical and philosophical issues, Objects Specialty Group Postprints, vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: AIC. 41–43.
Selwitz, C.1993. Some aspects of stone preservation in the Czech Republic. Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles.
Shashoua, Y.1992. Evaluation of polyester filling materials for use in ceramics conservation. Conservation Report no. 1992/20. London: British Museum.
Sickels, L.1981. Organics vs. synthetics: Their use as additives in mortars. In Mortars, cements and grouts used in the conservation of historic buildings. Rome: ICCROM. 25–52.
Skoulikidis, T., Papakonstantinou, E., Kritikou, E. and Tsangalidis, G.1993. Production of artificial patinas on the surface of new marbles used for the restoration of ancient monuments and on the surface of white cement copies of statues. In Conservation of stone and other materials: Prevention and treatments, vol. 2. Proceedings of the International RILEM/UNESCO Congress. Cambridge, U. K.: RILEM. 644–51.
Soultanian, J.1996. Personal communication. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y. 10021.
Sourlis, T.1988. Restoration of the John J. Glessner House. In Masonry: Materials design, construction, and maintenance, ed.H.Harris. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials. 231–250.
Strauss, L.1996. Personal communication. Conservation of Fine Arts Objects, Los Angeles, Calif. 90068.
SturgeT.1987. Polyester based supports for mosaics. Conservation News32:18–19.
Szczerba, Z., and H.Jedrzejewska. 1988. Standardized tests for lime plasters used in conservation. In Sixth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Torun, Poland. Torun, Poland: Nicholas Copernicus University Press. 303–312.
Thornton, J.1992. Personal communication. Art Conservation Department, State University College at Buffalo, Buffalo, N.Y. 14222.
Torraca, G.1986. Momenti nella storia della conservazione del marmo. In OPD Restauro, Restauro del Marmo: Opere e problemi. Firenze: Opus Libri.
Vine, M.1996. Personal communication. Conservation Resources Ltd., Oxfordshire, U.K.
Weber, H., and K.Zinsmeister. 1988. The conservation of natural stone. Munich: Bayplan.
Weiss, N.1989. How to restore stone: Methods of cleaning, pointing, repairing, treating, patching, replacing, and sealing architectural stone. Cultural Resources Management Bulletin: National Park Service Bulletin12(2):15–17.
Werner, A.1959. Adhesives and consolidants. ICOM preprints. Second joint meeting, International Council of Museums committee for museum laboratories and subcommittee for the care of paintings. Paris: ICOM.
Wheeler, G. S., and R.Newman. 1994. Analysis and treatment of a stone urn from the Imperial Hotel, Tokyo. In Lavas and volcanic tuffs: Proceedings of the international meeting, Easter Island, Chile, 25–31 October 1990. Rome: ICROM. 157–63.
Wihr, R.1986. Restaurierung von Steindenkmalern. Munich: Verlag Callway.
Williams, D.1996. Personal communication. Sculpture Conservation Studio, Los Angeles, Calif. 90019.
Wingate, M.1988. An introduction to building limes. Society for the Protections of Ancient Buildings News9(2):9–12.
Wisser, S., K.Kraus, and D.Knoefel. 1988. Composition and properties of historic lime mortars. In Sixth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Torun, Poland. Torun, Poland: Nicholas Copernicus University Press. 484–91.
Yakhont, O.1991. La Pratica della Conservazione nella scultura della pietra. In The conservation of monuments in the Mediterranean Basin. Proceedings of the 2d International Symposium. Geneva: Musee d'histoire naturelle and Musee d'art et d'histoire. 445–49.
Zambas, C., M.Ionnidou, and A.Papanikolaou. 1986. The use of titanium reinforcement for the restoration of marble architectural members of the Acropolis monuments. In Case studies in the conservation of stone and wall paintings, ed.N. S.Brommelle and P.Smith. London: IIC. 138–41.
Ahrens, D.1970. Restoration of stone sculpture at the Munich Glyptothek. In Conservation of stone and wooden objects. London: IIC. 65–69.
Ashurst, J.1985. Cleaning and surface repair: Past mistakes and future prospects. Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology17(2):39–41.
Ashurst, J., and N.Ashurst. 1988. Practical buildings conservation: Stone masonry, vol. 1. New York: Halsted Press.
Bailey, G.1996. Personal communication. Australian War Memorial, Treloar Centre for Conservation Science, Canberra, Australia.
Baradan, B.1993. Pozzolanic plasters for adobe preservation. In Conservation of stone and other materials: Prevention and treatments, vol. 2, Proceedings of the International RILEM/UNESCO Congress. Cambridge, U.K.: RILEM. 652–56.
Barov, Z.1986. The use of methyl methacrylate as an adhesive in the conservation of two objects from the W. R. Hearst Collection. In Case studies in the conservation of stone and wall paintings, ed.N. S.Brommelle and P.Smith. London: IIC. 112–15.
Boornazian, G., and N.Weiss. 1989. Restoration of the Soldier's Monument, Trinity Churchyard, New York City. In Structural repair and maintenance of historical buildings, ed.C.A.Brebbia. Boston: Computational Mechanics Publications. 469–80.
Derrick, M.1996. Funding priorities in materials conservation: Results of a survey of the AIC membership. National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, Natchitoches, La.
Dolcini, L.1986. Per una storia delle sculture. Posizione teoriche fra XVI e XIX secolo. In OPD Restauro. Restauro del Marmo: opere e problemi. Firenze: Opus Libri. 12–31.
Hatchfield, P.1986. Note on a fill material for water-sensitive objects. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation25:93–96.
Hempel, K.1968. Notes on the conservation of sculpture, stone, marble and terracotta. Studies in Conservation13(1):34–44.
Larson, J. H.1986. The conservation of a marble group of Neptune and Triton by Gianlorenzo Bernini. In Case studies in the conservation of stone and wall Paintings, ed.N. S.Brommelle and P.Smith. London: IIC. 22–26.
Pacifici, A. M.1986. Il marmo: materia, techniche, conservazione, restauro. Una bibliografia. In OPD Restauro: Restauro del Marmo: opere e problemi. Firenze: Opus Libri. 205–40.
Podany, J.1988. Reassembly and protection of large scale sculpture at the J. Paul Getty Museum: New applications of engineering techniques. In Sixth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Torun, Poland. Torun, Poland: Nicholas Copernicus University Press. 663–72.
Podany, J.1994. Faked, flayed or fractured? Development of loss compensation approaches for antiquities at the J. Paul Getty Museum. In Loss compensation: Technical and philosophical issues, Objects Specialty Group Postprints, vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: AIC. 38–56.
Podany, J., et al. 1995. The use of paper pulp based fill material for compensation of losses to sculpture. In From marble to chocolate: The conservation of modern sculpture. London: Archetype. 59–64.
Podany, J., and P.Leavengood. 1992. Chinese monumental sculpture: Treatment and seismic stabilization. In Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, vol. 3. Lisbon: Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil. 1517–526.
Weil, P. D.1967. Contributions towards a history of sculpture techniques: T. Orfeo Bosselli on the restoration of antique sculpture. Studies in Conservation12:81–101.
SOURCES OF MATERIALSAkemi Marmorkit 1000
Wood and Stone, Inc., 10115 Residency Rd., Manassas, Va. 22110Araldite AY Epoxies
Ciba-Geigy Corporation, Seven Skyline Dr., Hawthorne, N.Y. 10532-2188Carbone #AB-123 Putty
Martin R. Carbone, Inc., 2519 Bath St., Santa Barbara, Calif. 93105Edison Coatings
Edison Coatings, Inc., Waterbury, Conn.Epotek epoxies
Epoxy Technology, Inc., 14 Fortune Dr., Billerica, Mass. 01821Ethylene acrylic acid copolymers A-C 540 and 580
Allied Signal Corp., A-C Performance Additives, P.O. Box 2332, Morristown, N.J. 07962-2332Glass microspheres from 3M Corporation
Conservation Support Systems, 924 W. Pedregosa St., Santa Barbara, Calif. 93101HXTAL NYL-1
Conservation Materials, Ltd., P.O. Box 2884, Sparks, Nev. 89431Irganox, antioxidan T and thermal stabilizer
Ciba-Geigy Corp., Seven Skyline Dr., Hawthorne, N.Y. 10532-2188Jahn Mortars
Cathedral Stoneworks, 8332 Bristol Ct. #107, Jessup, Md. 20794Liquitex modeling pastes
Binney & Smith, Inc., Easton, Pa. 18044-0431Milliput
Milliput Corp., Unit 5, The Marion, Dolgellau, Mid Wales LL40 1UU, U.K.Permafill
Bondfast Co., Bridgewater, N.J. 08807Pliacre
Philadelphia Resins Corp., 20 Commerce Dr., Montgomeryville, Pa. 18936Polyfilla
Conservation Materials, Ltd., P.O. Box 2884, Sparks, Nev. 89431Polyvinyl acetate resins PVAC AYAA and AYAC
Union Carbide Corp., Specialty Chemicals and Plastics, Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, Conn. 06817Polyfix
Lepage's Ltd., Bramalea, Ontario L6T 2J4, Canada
Thompson's #5 White Hard Fusing Glass Enamel Powder
Thompson Enamel, a division of Ceramic Coating Co., 650 Colfax Ave., Bellevue, Ky. 41073
JOHN GRISWOLD received his B.A. in art history from the University of California at Irvine and a master's of art conservation (research) from Queen's University, Ontario, Canada. He is a partner in Wharton & Griswold Associates, a private conservation firm based in Los Angeles and Santa Barbara, California, specializing in the conservation of objects and architectural elements. He is a Professional Associate of AIC, and a past chair of the AIC Objects Specialty Group. He is currently president of the Western Association for Art Conservation (WAAC). Address: Wharton & Griswold Associates, 549 Hot Springs Rd., Santa Barbara, Calif. 93108.
SARI URICHECK received her bachelor's degree in chemistry from Johns Hopkins University and is currently studying conservation at the Conservation Center, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University. Address: New York University, Institute of Fine Arts, 14 E. 78th St., New York, N.Y. 10021.