JAIC 1998, Volume 37, Number 2, Article 2 (pp. 173 to 186)
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 1998, Volume 37, Number 2, Article 2 (pp. 173 to 186)

TWENTY-FIVE YEARS AFTER THE BOMB: MAINTAINING CLEVELAND'S THE THINKER

BRUCE CHRISTMAN



APPENDIX


1 APPENDIX

Other bronze casts of the enlarged version of The Thinker are listed below, by location:

Argentina

  • City of Buenos Aires, Plaza del Congresso.

Belgium

  • Laeken. The cast is located in the cemetery near the royal palace.

Denmark

  • Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen. Purchased by Carl Jacobsen in 1906.

France

  • Musée Rodin, Paris. Gift to the city of Paris and originally installed in front of the Pantheon. Removed by order of the Ministry of Public Instruction to the Musée Rodin in 1922. 1906 cast by Hébrard.
  • Musée Rodin, Meudon. Over Rodin's tomb. Cast in 1916 by Alexis Rudier.

Germany

  • Kunsthalle Richard Kaselowsky-Haus, Bielefeld. Purchased in 1968. Cast by George Rudier and numbered 13/13. The Musée Rodin has the right to make only 12 posthumous bronze casts of each one of Rodin's plasters. In this case, the numbering is either a mistake or the sculpture is an illegal cast.
  • National-Galerie, Berlin (formerly in the Eastern Sector).

Japan

  • National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo. Ex-collection of Matsukata. Cast by Alexis Rudier.
  • Kyoto National Museum
  • Municipal Museum, Nagoya. Cast by Georges Rudier.

Russia

  • Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow.

Sweden

  • Waldmarsudde, Prins Eugens Museum, Stockholm. Purchased 1909. Cast by Hébrard.

United States

California

  • California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco. Purchased in 1915. Cast by Alexis Rudier.
  • Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena. Posthumous cast no. 11. Cast by Georges Rudier.

Colorado

  • Colorado Savings and Loan Association, Denver. Posthumous cast. Purchased in 1966. Cast by Alexis Rudier.

Kentucky

  • City of Louisville. Lent to the University Foundry. Purchased in 1904. Cast by Hébrard.

Maryland

  • Baltimore Museum of Art. Jacob Epstein Collection. Cast by Alexis Rudier.
  • Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore.

Michigan

  • Detroit Institute of Arts. Purchased in 1922. Ex-collection of Dr. & Mrs. Linde. Cast by Alexis Rudier.

Missouri

  • City of Kansas City. Located in front of the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art.

New York

  • The B. Gerald Cantor Sculpture Center, New York City. Cast by Georges Rudier.
  • Columbia University, New York City. Cast by Alexis Rudier.

Ohio

  • Cleveland Museum of Art. Gift of Ralph King in 1917. Cast by Alexis Rudier.

Texas

  • Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.
  • Rodin Museum, Philadelphia. Gift of Jules Mastbaum. Cast in 1928 by Alexis Rudier.

This list of other bronze casts of the enlarged version of The Thinker (130.2 × 140 × 200.7 cm) and their locations has been compiled from these sources:


DeCaso, J., and P. B.Sander. 1973. Rodin's Thinker: Significant aspects. San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco; Burlingame, Calif.: Demia Press.

Elsen, A.1985. Rodin's Thinker and the dilemmas of modern public sculpture. New Haven: Yale University Press. 163, 164.

Spear, A. T.1972. Rodin sculpture in the Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art. 96,97.

Spear, A. T.1974. Supplement to Rodin sculpture in the Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art. 130S.

Tancock, J. L.1976. The sculpture of Auguste Rodin. Philadelphia: Philadephia Museum of Art and David R. Godine. 121.


NOTES

1. The remnant of a can of the Gorham AB Mixture remains in the Conservation Department although it has not been analyzed. The label reads, “A conditioning oil for bronze with either natural or oxidized finish,” and the instructions are, “Dampen cloth with oil and apply a liberal coating to entire surface. Wipe dry and polish with clean cloth.” The following note is also given: “AB Mixture will not restore original color nor prevent darkening. It will with repeated applications produce the beautiful color characteristic associated with well kept bronze.” The last sentence sounds as if it might have been written by Frank Purdy, as the language and view are similar to those expressed in his letters.

2. Sheath Rust Preventive, made by Birchwood-Casey, Eden Prairie, Minnesota, is according to in a product data sheet from the 1970s, a “solvent-based, water displacing corrosion inhibitor, finger print neutralizer and lubricant for ferrous and nonferrous metals. It lays down a thin, transparent film which lifts moisture from metal pores. Prevents corrosion by sealing moisture out with a continuous polar protective film …. Penetrates and loosens rusty ‘frozen’ parts. Leaves a slightly oily film which will not gum under high humidity, high-temperature conditions. Harmless to plastics, rubbers, paints. Contains no silicone or wax.” The product is still being marketed by Birchwood-Casey as Sheath RBI Water Displacing Rust Preventive, and the description has not changed in 20 years. The current material safety data sheet states that the product contains mineral spirits (over 63% w/w), heavy petroleum oxygenates, barium-neutralized (under 18% w/w), mineral oil (under 15% w/w), and propylene glycol monomethyl ether (under 4% w/w).

3. The x-ray diffraction pattern was found to match JCPDS file number 30–0473, International Centre for Diffraction Data, 1997.

4. Cheddite I.S. contains 90% potassium chlorate, 7% paraffin, 3% petroleum jelly, and traces of carbon black. Cheddite O.S. Contains 90% sodium chlorate, 7% paraffin, 3% petroleum jelly, and traces of carbon black. Cheddite O extra contains 79% sodium chlorate, 23.2% nitro derivatives of toluene, and 1.8% nitrocotton. Leonid Trassuk and Claude Blair, eds., The Complete Encyclopedia of Arts and Weapons (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979), 174–77.



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON THE CONSERVATION OF OUTDOOR BRONZE SCULPTURE

Chase, W. T., and N. F.Veloz. 1985. Some considerations in surface treatment of outdoor metal sculpture. AIC preprints, American Institute for Conservation 13th Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C.Washington, D.C.: AIC. 23–35.

CRM Bulletin. 1984. Outdoor sculpture in the park environment. CRM Bulletin7(2): 4–5.

Drayman-Weisser, T.1992. Dialogue/89—The conservation of bronze sculpture in the outdoor environment: A dialogue among conservators, curators, environmental scientists, and corrosion engineers. July 11–13, 1989, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Houston: National Association of Corrosion Engineers.

Erhardt, D., et al. 1984. The durability of Incralac: Examination of a 10-year-old treatment. ICOM Committee for Conservation preprints, 7th Triennial Meeting, Copenhagen. Paris: ICOM. 84.22.1–84.22.3.

Merk-Gould, L., R.Herskovitz, and C.Wilson. 1993. Field tests on removing corrosion from outdoor bronze sculptures using medium pressure water. ICOM Committee for Conservation preprints, 10th Triennial Meeting, Washington, D.C. Paris: ICOM. 772–78.

Montagna, D. R.1989. Conserving outdoor bronze sculpture. Preservation Tech Notes. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service.

Veloz, N. F., and W. T.Chase. 1989. Airbrasive cleaning of statuary and other structures: A century of technical examinations of blasting procedures. Technology and Conservation (Spring): 18–28.

Weil, P. D.1975. The approximate two-year lifetime of Incralac on outdoor bronze sculpture. ICOM Committee for Conservation preprints, 4th Triennial Meeting, Venice, Italy. Paris: ICOM.

Weil, P. D.1980. The conservation of outdoor bronze sculpture: A review of modern theory and practice. AIC preprints, American Institute for Conservation 8th Annual Meeting, San Francisco. Washington, D.C.: AIC. 129–40.



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON RODIN AND HIS SCULPTURE

DeCaso, J., and P. B.Sander. 1973. Rodin's Thinker: Significant aspects. San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco; Burlingame, Calif.: Demia Press.

Elsen, A. E.1980. In Rodin's studio: A photographic record of sculpture in the making. Oxford: Phaidon Press.

Elsen, A. E.1985. Rodin's Thinker and the dilemmas of modern public sculpture. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Elsen, A. E., ed.1981. Rodin rediscovered. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art.

Spear, A. T.1972. Rodin sculpture in the Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art.

Tancock, J. L.1976. The sculpture of Auguste Rodin. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art and David R. Godine.



SOURCES OF MATERIALS

Butcher's Bowling Alley Paste Wax (wax mixture in turpentine and petroleum naphtha)

Butcher Polish Co., 67 Foreft St., Marlborough, Mass. 01752

Incralac (Acryloid B-44 with benzotriazole and UV stabilizer)

StanChem Co., 401 Berlin St., East Berlin, Conn. 06023

Minwax Paste Finishing Wax (wax mixture in turpentine and petroleum naphtha)

Minwax Company, Inc., 16 Cherry St., Clifton, N.J. 07014, or, Flora, Ill. 62839

Orvus WA Paste (sodium lauryl sulfate)

Conservation Support Systems, P.O. Box 91746, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93190


AUTHOR INFORMATION

BRUCE CHRISTMAN graduated from the University of Delaware/Winterthur Art Conservation program in 1979 and has worked as a conservator at the Cleveland Museum of Art. Currently he holds the post of chief conservator. Christman has been active in the Cleveland SOS! (Save Outdoor Sculpture!) program, helping to train volunteers for the project. The project has now moved to the next phase, which is to raise money for the treatment of the outdoor sculptures owned by the city of Cleveland. Address: Cleveland Museum of Art, 11150 East Boulevard, Cleveland, Ohio 44106–1797.


Copyright © 1998 American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works