THE DEVELOPMENT AND INITIAL APPLICATION OF A GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF GUM MEDIA
SARAH L. VALLANCE, B.W. SINGER, S. M. HITCHEN, & J. H. TOWNSEND
Al-Hazmi, M. I., and K. R.Stauffer. 1986. Gas chromatographic determination of hydrolyzed sugars in commercial gums. Journal of Food Science51:1091–1092, 1097.
Aspinall, G. O., and R. M.Fairweather. 1965. Araucaria bidwilli gum. Carbohydrate Research1:83–92.
Aspinall, G. O., and J. P.McKenna. 1968. Araucaria bidwilli gum. Part 2. Further studies on the polysaccharide components. Carbohydrate Research7:244–54.
Birstein, V. J.1975. On the technology of Central Asian wall paintings: The problem of binding media. Studies in Conservation20:8–19.
Bishop, C. T.1964. Gas-liquid chromatography of carbohydrate derivatives. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry19:95–147.
Bishop, C. T., and F. P.Cooper. 1960. Separation of carbohydrate derivatives by gas-liquid partition chromatography. Canadian Journal of Chemistry38:388–95.
Blake, J. D., and G. N.Richards. 1968. Problems of lactonization in the analysis of uronic acids. Carbohydrate Research8:275–81.
Blakeney, A. B., P. J.Harris, R. J.Henry, and B. A.Stone. 1983. A simple and rapid preparation of alditol acetates for monosaccharide analysis. Carbohydrate Research113:291–99.
Bleton, J., C.Coupry, and J.Sansoulet. 1996. Approche d'etude des encres anciennes. Studies in Conservation41:95–118.
Brobst, K. M., and C. E.LottJr.1966. Determination of some components in corn syrup by gas-liquid chromatography of the trimethylsilyl derivatives. Cereal Chemistry43:35–43.
Chambers, R. E., and J. R.Clamp. 1971. An assessment of methanolysis and other factors used in the analysis of carbohydrate containing materials. Biochemical Journal125:1009–1018.
Chaplin, M. F.1982. A rapid and sensitive method for the analysis of carbohydrate components in glycoproteins using gas-liquid chromatography. Analytical Biochemistry123:336–41.
Church, A. H.1901. The chemistry of paints and painting. 3d ed.London: Seeley and Co.79–80.
Churms, S. C.1990. Recent developments in the chromatographic analysis of carbohydrates. Journal of Chromatography500:555–83.
Decker, P., and H.Schweer. 1982. Gas-liquid chromatography on OV-225 of tetroses and aldopentoses as their O-methoxime and O-n-butoxime pertrifluoroacetyl derivatives and of C3-C6 alditol pertrifluoroacetates. Journal of Chromatography236:369–73.
Derrick, M. R., and D. C.Stulik. 1990. Identification of natural gums in works of art using pyrolysis-gas chromatography. ICOM Committee for Conservation, preprints, 9th Triennial Meeting, Dresden, Paris: ICOM. 1:9–13.
Dierckxsens, G. C., L. D.Meyer, and G. J.Tonino. 1983. Simultaneous determination of uronic acids, hexosamines, and galactose of galactosaminoglycans by gas-liquid chromatography. Analytical Biochemistry130:120–27.
Dmitriev, B. A., L. V.Backinowsky, O. S.Chizhov, B. M.Zolotarev, and N. K.Kochetkov. 1971. Gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of aldononitrile acetates and partially methylated aldononitrile acetates. Carbohydrate Research19:432–35.
Doerner, M.1934. The materials of the artist and their use in painting. New York: Harcourt, Brace. 223–24.
Erhardt, D., W.Hopwood, M.Baker, and D.vonEndt. 1988. A systematic approach to the instrumental analysis of natural finishes and binding media. AIC preprints, American Institute for Conservation 6th Annual Meeting, New Orleans. Washington, D.C.: AIC. 7–84.
Essick, R. N.1980. Appendix II. In William Blake: Printmaker. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
EvershedR. P.1993. Advances in Silylation. In Handbook of derivatives for chromatography, ed.K.Blau and J. M.Halket. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley. 53, 59, 70.
Fazio, S. A., D. J.Ulinger, J. H.Parker and D. C.White. 1982. Estimations of uronic acids as quantitative measures of extracellular and cell wall polysaccharide polymers from environmental samples. Applied Environmental Microbiology43:1151–1159.
Flieder, F.1968. Mise au point des techniques d'identification des pigments et des liants inclus dans la couche picturale des enluminures de manuscrits. Studies in Conservation13:49–86.
Furia, T. E., ed.1981. Tree exudates and extracts: Gum karaya. In CRC handbook of food additives, 2d ed.Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. 1:314–15.
Gettens, R. J., and G. L.Stout. 1966. Gums. In Painting materials: A short encyclopaedia. New York: Dover. 13, 28–9.
Gilchrist, A.1863. Life of William Blake. London and Cambridge: MacMillan. 69–70, 368–9.
Ha, Y. W., and R. L.Thomas. 1988. Simultaneous determination of neutral sugars and uronic acids in hydrocolloids. Journal of Food Science53 (2):574–577.
Halket, J. M.1993. Derivatives for GC-MS. In Handbook of derivatives for chromatography, ed.K.Blau and J. M.Halket. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley. 304.
Honda, S., K.Kakehi, and K.Okada. 1979. A convenient method for the gas chromatographic analysis of hexosamines in the presence of neutral monosaccharides and uronic acids. Journal of Chromatography176:367–73.
Jones, J. M., and P.Albersheim. 1972. A gas chromatographic method for the determination of aldose and uronic acid constituents of plant cell wall polysaccharides. Plant Physiology49:926–36.
Laurie, A. P.1911. The materials of the painter's craft. Philadelphia: Lippincott. 164.
Lehrfeld, J.1981. Differential gas-liquid chromatography method for determination of uronic acids in carbohydrate mixtures. Analytical Biochemistry115:410–18.
Li, B. W., P. J.Schuhmann, and J. M.Holden. 1983. Determination of sugars in yoghurt by gas-liquid chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry31:985–89.
Long, A. R., and G. W.ChismIII. 1987. A rapid direct extraction-derivatization method for determining sugars in fruit tissue. Journal of Food Science52:150–54.
Masschelein-Kleiner, L., J.Heylan, and F.Tricot-Marckx. 1968. Contribution à l'analyse des liants, adhésifs et vernis anciens. Studies in Conservation13:105–21.
Masschelein-Kleiner, L., and F.Tricot-Marckx. 1965. La détection de polysaccharides dans les matériaux constitutifs des oevres d'art. Institut Royal du Patrimoine Artistique, Bulletin8:180–91.
McInnes, A. G., D. H.Ball, F. P.Cooper, and C. T.Bishop. 1958. Separation of carbohydrate derivatives by gas-liquid partition chromatography. Journal of Chromatography1:556–57.
Merrifield, M. P.1966. Original treatises on the arts of painting. New York: Dover. 1:284.
Mills, J. S., and R.White. 1994. Cherry gum, carob/locust gum and tamarind mucilage. In The organic chemistry of museum objects. 2d ed.London: Butterworth Heinemann. 77, 78.
Mora, P., L.Mora, and E.Porta. 1990. Conservation et restauration de la tombe de Néfertari dans la Vallée des Reines. ICOM Committee for Conservation preprints, 9th Triennial Meeting, Dresden. Paris: ICOM. 518–23.
Palet, A., and E.Porta. 1990. Análisis químico de los pigmentos y aglutinantes empleados en las pinturas murales de la tumba de Nefertari. Congresa de Conservación de Bienes Culturales, Valencia, 20–23 Setiebre de 1990, 452–60. P. Roig Picazo.
Selvendran, R. R., J. G.March, and S. G.Ring. 1979. Determination of aldoses and uronic acid content of vegetable fibre. Analytical Biochemistry96:282–92.
Sullivan, J. E., and L. R.Schewe. 1977. Preparation and gas chromatography of highly volatile trifluoroacetylated carbohydrates using N-methyl bis[trifluoroacet-amide]. Journal of Chromatographic Science15:196–97.
Sweeley, C. C., R.Bentley, M.Makita, and W. W.Wells. 1963. Gas-liquid chromatography of trimethylsilyl derivatives of sugars and related substances. Journal of the American Chemical Society85:2497–2507.
Szyszko, W.1972. Technological investigations of the three Egyptian epitaphial stelae on wood supports now preserved in national museum, Kraców, part 1. Ochrona Zabytkow25:170.
Twilley, J. W.1984. The analysis of exudate plant gums in their artistic applications: An interim report. Archaeological Chemistry, vol. 3, ed.Joseph B.Lambert. American Chemical Society, Advances in Chemistry series, no. 205. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. 357–94.
Valdez, D.1985. Silylation of dilute hydroxy compounds in aqueous solutions. Journal of Chromatographic Science23:128.
SOURCES OF MATERIALSStandard monosaccharides; pyridine [27,040-7]; 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazane [H1,000-2]; trifluoroacetic acid [30,203-1]:
Aldrich Chemical Company, Ltd., The Old Brickyard, New Rd., Gillingham, Dorset SP8 4JL, U.K.Standard gum media:
A. P. Fitzpatrick, 1 Barnabas Studios, 10-22 Barnabas Rd., London, E9 5SB, U.K.
Winsor and Newton, Whitefriars Ave., Harrow, Middlesex HA3 5RH, U.K.HP5890 Gas Chromatograph with Mass Selective Detector and HP 5895 GC Chemstation; DB-5 capillary column, 0.25 mm ID, 0.25 μm film thickness, 30 m length
Hewlett-Packard Ltd., Heathside Park Rd., Cheadle Heath, Stockport, Cheshire SK3 0RB U.K.Reacti-therm heating module; 1 ml Reactivials with screw caps; septa
Pierce and Warriner, 44 Upper Northgate St., Chester CH1 4EF, U.K.Custom-built climate-controlled oven for artificial aging
Fisher Scientific UK, Bishop Meadow Rd., Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 0RG, U.K.
SARAH L. VALLANCE received her B.Sc. (Hons) in applied chemistry from the University of Northumbria at Newcastle in 1992. After a period in industry as a method development analytical chemist, she returned to the University of Northumbria at Newcastle in 1994 to begin Ph.D. studies in collaboration with the Tate Gallery, London. Her research focused on development and application of gas and high performance liquid chromatographic methods for identification of artists' proteinaceous and natural gum binding media, ultimate aim of project being study of late-18th- and early-19th-century works by artists such as William Blake, J.M.W. Turner, and D. G. Rossetti. She was awarded her Ph.D. in 1997 on “The Development and Application of Chromatographic Techniques in the Characterization of Artists' Media.” She has published a number of papers on work in conservation science. Currently, she is the assistant web editor at the Royal Society of Chemistry, London, U.K. Address: Royal Society of Chemistry, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London W1V OBN, U.K.
BRIAN SINGER obtained his Ph.D. in the field of synthetic organic chemistry at the University of Leeds, U.K. A lectureship at Gateshead Technical College, where he taught chemistry on a diploma course in Fine Art Conservation, established an interest in conservation science. He is currently a senior lecturer at the University of Northumbria at Newcastle teaching chemistry in the M.A. Conservation of Fine Art course. His research interests include the investigation of artists' techniques and materials and the effects of certain conservation treatments on paper supports. Address: Department of Chemical and Life Sciences, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Ellison Building, Ellison Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear NE1 8ST, U.K.
STEPHEN M. HITCHEN graduated from the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST) in 1976, with a B.Sc. (Hons) in chemistry. He obtained his Ph.D. in synthetic organic chemistry from UMIST in 1980 and is currently a senior lecturer in the Department of Chemical and Life Sciences at the University of Northumbria at Newcastle. His current research interests include aided method development in chromatography. Address as for Singer.
JOYCE H. TOWNSEND received her B.Sc. (Hons) in physics from the University of Glasgow in 1979. She was a conservation scientist at Glasgow Museums, 1979–87, specializing in accelerated aging and materials testing for conservation. From 1987 to 1991, she was a conservation scientist, and from 1991 to the present, senior conservation scientist, at the Tate Gallery, London. She received her Ph.D. from the Courtauld Institute of Art, University of London, 1991, on “The materials and Techniques of JMW Turner, RA 1775–1851.” She concentrates on the identification and aging of artists' materials used in the later 18th and 19th centuries and also works with conservators who are evaluating or developing conservation processes. She has published studies on J.M.W. Turner, James Abbott McNeil Whistler, and Edgar Degas and is currently working on Sir Joshua Reynolds. She has been editor and technical editor of several conference proceedings, most recently Turner's Painting Techniques in Context (UKIC, 1995) and Resins: Ancient and Modern (SSCR 1995). Address: Conservation Department, Tate Gallery, Millbank, London SW1P 4RG, U.K.