JAIC , Volume 39, Number 2, Article 2 (pp. to )
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC , Volume 39, Number 2, Article 2 (pp. to )

DIGITAL VIDEO MICROSCOPY: A PRACTICAL VISUAL ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE FOR THE CONSERVATOR

TED STANLEY



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author would like to acknowledge the great work of Marc Reeves, New York Public Library Conservation Department, that has inspired the author's interest in digital video microscopy. The author also thanks very much Ersev Erdogan, Princeton Class of 1999 and now with Microsoft; Michele Hamill, Cornell University Preservation Department; and Stuart Kohler, Norwich University Computer Systems Department, for reviewing the drafts of this paper. I would also like to thank the reviewers and editors of JAIC.


APPENDIX


APPENDIX

The digital video microscopy system used in the Special Collections Conservation Unit of Princeton University Library includes:

Computer

Power Mac G4/400MHz, 256 MB RAM

Operating System

Mac OS 9

Computer Monitor

Apple 17 in., .25 dot pitch color monitor

CCD Camera

Javelin JE133

Digital Video Capture Card

Aurora Fuse, 9 MB capture rate

Polarized Light Microscope

Olympus BH-2

Stereo Binocular Microscope

Zeiss OpMI 1-FC



REFERENCES

Biggs, J.1994. Analysis and treatment of a painting on vellum with the aid of a video-microscopy system. In Book and Paper Group annual, vol. 14. Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Conservation. 1–7.

Côté, W. A.1980. Papermaking fibers: A photomicrographic atlas. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press.

D'Amato, P. D., and R. C.Klopfenstein. 1996. Requirements and options for the digitalization of the illustration collections of the National Museum of Natural History. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.

Feller, R. L.1986. Artists' pigments: A handbook of their history and characteristics, vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art.

Fitzhugh, E. W.1997. Artists' pigments: A handbook of their history and characteristics, vol. 3. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art.

Greenberg, A. D., and S.Greenberg. 1995. Digital images: A practical guide. Berkeley, Calif.: McGraw-Hill.

Groce, G. C., and D. H.Wallace. 1957. The New York Historical Society's dictionary of artists in America, 1564–1860. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

Kabir, I.1996. High performance computer imaging. Greenwich, Conn.: Manning Publications Co.

Luther, A. C.1991. Digital video in the PC environment. 2d ed.New York: McGraw-Hill.

McCrone, W. C.1982. The microscopical identification of pigments. Journal of the International Institute for Conservation—Canadian Group7(1 & 2):11–34.

McCrone, W. C., L. C.McCrone, and J. G.Delly. 1995. Polarized light microscopy. 9th printing. Chicago, Ill.: McCrone Research Institute.

Poynton, C. A.1996. A technical introduction to digital video. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Reilly, J. M.1986. The care and identification of 19th-century photographic prints. Rochester, N.Y.: Eastman Kodak Company.

Robertson, J.1992. Forensic examination of fibers. Chichester, England: Ellis Horwood Limited.

Roy, A.1993. Artists' pigments: A handbook of their history and characteristics, vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art.

Bell, L. A.1990. Plant fibers for papermaking. McMinneville, Ore.: Liliaceae Press.

Besser, H., and J.Trant. 1995. Introduction to imaging: Issues in constructing an image database. Santa Monica, Calif.: Getty Art History Information Program.

Brown, C. W., and B. J.Shepherd. 1995. Graphics file formats, reference and guide. Greenwich, Conn.: Manning Publications Co.

Cardullo, R. A., and E. J.Alm. 1998. Introduction to image processing. In Methods in cell biology, vol. 56, ed. G.Sluder and D. E.Wolf. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press.

Crown, D. A.1968. Forensic examination of paints and pigments. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas.

Feeley, J.1996. Digital video gets PCI religion. Macworld. February. 46–47.

Huesmann, M.1999. Reading the world's secrets: 150 years of Leica microscope optics for progress in science and industry. Wetzlar, Germany: LMS Holdings GmbH.

Inoué, T., and N.Gliksman. 1998. Techniques for optimizing microscopy and analysis through digital image processing. In Methods in cell biology, vol. 56, ed. G.Sluder and D. E.Wolf. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press.

Mayer, D.1994. Fiber identification (draft). In Paper conservation catalog, vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Conservation.

Salmon, E. D.1998. A high-resolution multimode digital microscope system. In Methods in cell biology, vol. 56, ed. G.Sluder and D. E.Wolf. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press.



SOURCES OF MATERIALS

CCD camera and microscopes

NY/NJ Scientific

P.O.Box 5155

Middlebush, N.J. 08875

Chemicals

J.T. Baker

A division of Mallinckrodt Baker

Phillipsburg, N.J. 08865

Computer and monitor

Apple Computer

1 Infinite Loop

Cupertino, Calif. 95014–6299

Digital video capture card

ClubMac

7 Hammond

Irvine, Calif. 92618

Fiber reference sets

McCrone Accessories

850 Pasquinnelli Drive

Westmont, Ill. 60559–5531

Institute of Paper Science and Technology

500 10th Street, NW

Atlanta, Ga. 30318

Japanese paper

Hiromi Paper

2525 Michigan Ave.

#G-9

Santa Monica, Calif. 90404

Microscopes (Polarized light)

NY/NJ Scientific

P.O. Box 5155

Middlebush, N.J. 08875

McCrone paint pigment sample set

McCrone Accessories

850 Pasquinnelli Drive

Westmont, Ill. 60559–5531

Wheat starch paste

Talas

568 Broadway

New York, N.Y. 10012


AUTHOR INFORMATION

TED STANLEY has been the head of the Special Collections Conservation Unit and a paper conservator for Princeton University Library since 1992. From 1976 to 1992, he was a senior paper conservator at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. He has also studied paper conservation through the National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship for Museum Professionals at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, and the Centro Nationale de Conservacion y Restauracion de Bien Culturales in Madrid, from 1984 to 1985. Address: Preservation Office, Firestone Library, Princeton University, One Washington Rd., Princeton, N.J. 08544–2098

Received for review March 16, 1999. Revised manuscript received November 5, 1999. Accepted for publication November 23, 1999.


NOTES

1.. The 1868 print had been mounted on a solid-ground wood board and was previously repaired with lengths of transparent pressure-sensitive tape, which had discolored and stained the print. Subsequently, the print was conserved by the following steps: mechanically removing the mount; removing the tape carrier, reducing the adhesive residue and stain in several baths of ethyl acetate; suction table washing with a (90:10) solution of absolute ethanol and carbon-filtered water spray; and a stretch-lining using double layers of tengujo Japanese paper and ethanol-saturated wheat starch paste. The print was pre-wetted with a (90:10) solution of absolute ethanol and carbon-filtered water spray before lining. The conservation treatment did not adversely affect the print in any way.The 1890 print was not mounted. It had severe planar distortion that could not be treated effectively. Severe skinning of the paper support at its verso was reinforced with tengujo Japanese paper and wheat starch paste.